Phylogenetics and Primateology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Phylogenetics and Primateology Deck (58)
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1

phylogenetics

the study of evolutionary history

2

cladistics

methodology of phylogenetics, fundamental principle is the only correct taxonomy is one that perfectly mirrors evolutionary history, groups taxa using shared derived traits

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ancestral trait

trait derived from a remote ancestor

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trait derived from a remote ancestor

ancestral trait

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trait modified since a remote ancestor

derived traits

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derived traits

trait modified since a remote ancestor

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homoplasy

convergent traits that are similar but independently derived, not inherited from a common ancestor

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convergent traits

homoplasy

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homology

traits that are similar because of a common descendant

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traits that are similar because of a common descendant

homology

11

characteristics of primates

arboreal
post-orbital bar
stereoscopic vision
emphasis on vision
reduced prognathism
prehensile hands
opposable thumbs
nails instead of claws
single offspring / long infant dependency
large, complex brains / intelligence
complex social behaviour

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prognathism

extension of the mandible and/or maxilla outwards from the face

13

Lemurs, Lorises, Galagos

Prosimians

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Prosimian geographic region, diet, sleep cycle, and locomotion traits

Madagascar, Africa, SE Asia
Lemurs, Lorises, Galagos
insectivores, gummivores
nocturnal
quadrupeds: vertical clingers and leapers

15

Prosimian anatomical features

post-orbital bar
tooth comb
2133
tricuspid molars
partial stereoscopic vision
grooming claw

16

Tarsier geographic region, diet, sleep cycle, and locomotion traits

SE Asia
Insectivore
Nocturnal
quadrupeds: vertical clingers and leapers

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Tarsier anatomical features

partial post-orbital wall
2133 [upper] / 1133 [lower]
tricuspid molars
grooming claw

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Spider monkey

New World Monkey

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New World monkey geographic range

Central and South America

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New World monkey locomotion, eye socket type, dental formula, molar type, posture, and tail

arboreal quadrupeds
full post-orbital wall / partition
Ceboids: 2133; Callithricids: 2132
4 cusps on teeth, but not bilophodont
pronograde
prehensile tail in some Ceboids

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bilophondont

Having two transverse ridges, as the molar teeth of certain animals.

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pronograde

Walking with the long axis of the body parallel to the ground. Used of quadrupeds.

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Macaques

Old World Monkey

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Old World monkey geographic range

Asia, Africa

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Old World monkey locomotion, eye socket type, dental formula, molar type, posture, and tail

arboreal (but less so than New World) quadrupeds
full post-orbital wall
2123
4 cusped molars, bilophondont
pronograde
most have tails but they are not prehensile

26

list the seven types of Apes (Hominoids)

Gibbon, Siamang, Orangutan, Chimpanzee, Bonobo, Gorilla, Human

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Hominid eye socket type, dental formula, molar type, posture, and tail

full post-orbital wall / partition
2123
addition of hypoconulid cusp
large body size: orthograde posture
no tail

28

hypoconulid

Fifth cusp of molar in primates, the last to be added to the primate family and the first to be eliminated in some individuals

http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=vNi68aZp874C&pg=PT384&lpg=PT384&dq=hypoconulid+5+cusp&source=bl&ots=mUyJLcPI1N&sig=4hoL7QiHRrwUEff-vW3HFgQazeU&hl=en&sa=X&ei=1ZdKUfyBGNGAygHAqIGYBw&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA

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advantages of living in groups

predator defence
food acquisition
reproductive access
socialisation

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disadvantages of living in groups

more conspicuous
food competition
mate competition
energy costs of socialisation and organisation