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1

what are the four forces of Darwinian evolution?

genetic drift, natural selection, gene flow, mutation

2

mutation occurs through what means?

exposure to chemicals or radiation may cause a base substitution or frame shift to either coding or non-coding DNA during cell mitosis or meiosis

3

define: phenotype

The observable morphological, physical, and behavior characteristics of one's genetic makeup

4

The observable morphological, physical, and behavior characteristics of one's genetic makeup

phenotype

5

define: evolution in most basic terms

It fundamentally equals change

6

list the necessary and sufficient conditions for natural selection to act

variation in a trait, inheritance of the trait, differential fitness

7

the mode of selection in which extremes of a trait are selected against, or "trimmed" from a population

stabilising selection

8

J. Baptiste Lamarck

proposed the inheritance of acquired characteristics

9

the discontinuation of the perceived relationship among traits in offspring is best explained as

Mendel's Principle of Independent Assortment

10

under what conditions does polygyny occur?

in environments where resources are clumped and not evenly distributed

11

what are the four sub-fields or Anthropology?

Archaeology, Social Anthropology, Biological Anthropology, Lingusitics

12

somatic cell division

mitosis

13

a provisional or initial explanation of a given phenomenon

hypothesis

14

to show that the parents are from the same species, an offspring must be able to

have its own children

15

variant of a gene

allele

16

an individual's genetic code

genotype

17

any random change in DNA

mutation

18

segment of DNA that codes for a protien

gene

19

discovered the first complete Ichthyosaurus skeleton, invented modern naming scheme

Linnaeus

20

developed the theory of acquired characteristics

Lamark

21

founder of modern geology and theory of uniformitarianism

Lyell

22

published Origin of the Species

Darwin

23

Monk botanist that experimented with dominate and recessive gene characteristics

Mendel

24

which two forces decrease variation within populations?

natural selection, genetic drift

25

which two forces increase variation within populations?

mutation, gene flow

26

fitness vs reproductive success?

Fitness is the relative number of alleles an individual contributes to the next generation, maximised by natural selection.
Reproductive success is the number of progeny an individual has, optimised by natural selection. These offspring may or may not be properly adapted to pass on their alleles, and so themselves will have varying fitness.

27

fecundity

the potential reproductive capacity of an individual or population

28

progeny

offspring

29

Trivers-Willard hypothesis

Differential variation in reproductive success of sexes accounts for dimorphism; if conditions are good, take chances, if conditions are poor play it safe.

30

balanced polymorphism

an equilibrium mixture of homozygotes and heterozygotes maintained by natural selection against both homozygotes