Chapter 2 - Genetics Flashcards Preview

Biological Anthropology > Chapter 2 - Genetics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Genetics Deck (60)
Loading flashcards...
1

Gregor Mendel

Slovakian Monk who studied the variance of traits in peas between 1856-1863, notable for experiments with the coloration of peas

2

variants

Different forms (expressions) of a trait

3

crosses

Mating two individuals to produce offspring

4

F0 Generation

In genetic experiments, a term used to refer to the original (founding) generation

5

F1 Generation

In genetic experiments, the offspring of the founding (F0) population; the second generation

6

F2 Generation

In genetic experiments, the offspring of the second (F1) generation; the third generation

7

Mendel's two principles

1) The observed characteristics of organisms are determined jointly by two particles (later named genes by T.H. Morgan), one inherited from the mother and one from the father.
2) Each of these two particles, or genes, is equally likely to be transmitted when gametes (eggs and sperm) are formed. Now known as independent assortment

8

independent assortment

Each gene has an equal probability to be transmitted to gametes (eggs and sperm) during their production

9

genes

A molecular unit of heredity of a living organism, inherited equally from mother and father, named by American geneticist T.H. Morgan

10

gametes

Eggs and sperm, the cells that fuse during fertilisation

11

chromosomes

Small linear bodies contained in every cell which are replicated during cell division.

12

nucleus (plural nuclei)

A membrane enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells containing most of the cells genetic material, organised as multiple long linear DNA molecules

13

eukaryote

An organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes, such as a nucleus and a chromosome, accounting for all complex life forms

14

mitosis

The process of ordinary cell division, creating two copies of the chromosomes present in the nucleus

15

diploid

Organisms whose chromosomes come in homologous pairs

16

homologous pairs

In chromosomes, pairs whose members have similar shapes and staining patterns

17

meiosis

Special cell division process that produces gametes, wherein only half of the chromosomes are transmitted from the parent cell to the gamete

18

haploid

Cells containing only one copy of each chromosome, such as gametes - contrast with diploid cells, which contain a homologous pair of chromosomes

19

zygote

Diploid cell formed by the unification of two haploid gametes, one from the mother (egg) and one from the father (sperm). Subsequent mitosis of this cell produces a new individual

20

allele

Different varieties of a particular gene

21

homozygous

Individuals with two copies of the same allele

22

heterozygous

Individuals with two different alleles

23

genotype

The particular combination of genes or alleles that an individual carries

24

phenotype

The observable characteristics of an organism, such as the colour of the peas in Mendel's experiments

25

recessive

An allele (trait) that has no effect on phenotype (expression of trait) in heterozygotes (individuals with two different alleles present)

26

crossing over

The act of a damaged chromosome recombining to a new genotype during meiosis, creating novel combinations of genes not seen in the parent

27

independent segregation

Traits whose probabilities of expression are not affected by the presence of other traits. Mendel believed all traits behaved as such, however it is now known that it occurs mainly when the genes of the traits being measured reside on different chromosomes

28

locus (plural loci)

The particular site on a particular chromosome where the genes will be read to control a particular trait

29

genome

All of the genes from every chromosome present in an organism

30

linked traits

When loci for multiple traits occur on the same chromosome