Chapter 1 - Adaptation By Natural Selection Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 1 - Adaptation By Natural Selection Deck (16)
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1

adaptations

Components of an organism that interact to help it survive and reproduce

2

natural selection

Evolution by variation and selective retention

3

postulates of Darwin's theory of adaptation

1) The struggle for existence
2) Variation in fitness
3) Inheritance of variation

4

the struggle for existence

The ability of a population to expand is infinite, but the ability of any environment to support populations is always finite

5

variation in fitness

Organisms within populations vary, in this variation affects the ability of individuals to survive and reproduce

6

inheritance of variation

Variations in individuals are transmitted from parents to offspring

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morphology

An organisms size, shape, and composition

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stabilising selection

An organism reaches equilibrium with its environment, thus causing offsprings' traits to be selected for constancy

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traits

Characteristics of an individual

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species

Populations of varied individuals that may or may not change through time

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individual selection

Adaptation results from the competition among individuals, not between entire populations or species

12

fecundity

The ability to produce offspring

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continuous variation

Even distribution in the range of expression of various traits among individuals in a population

14

discontinuous variation

A number of distinct expressions of a trait exist among individuals with in a population, with no intermediaries

15

convergence

Evolution of similar adaptations in unrelated groups of animals

16

blending inheritance

A model of inheritance that assumes the mother and father each contribute a hereditary substance that mixes or blends" to determine the characteristics of the offspring