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Flashcards in PHYSICAL CASE STUDIES Deck (36)
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1

Describe and explain the main characteristics of the natural vegetation of a tropical rainforest. You must include a labelled diagram.

The Malaysian Rainforest.

-Humus layer of decaying organic matter
- Fan palms large leaves to catch sunlight
- Strangler figs parasites that kill host tree
-Buttress roots large and solid max food
-Liana woody vines climb others to get sun
-Shrub layer dense and near floor
-Canopy thick, 20-30m , 50% of wildlife
-Emergents above canopy grow to 50m

2

For a named area of tropical rainforest which you have studied, describe and explain the main features of its climate.

The Malaysian Rainforest.

Temperature- January it's 32 and June it's 28. 4 degree difference because the daylight hours are the same and the insolation formt eh sun is the nearly the same all year round. under the rising limb of the Hadley cell. so recives.....

Rainfall- 4200mm a year
- heavy convectional rainfall
- between 2-4pm each day

3

For a named area of tropical rainforest which you have studied, describe the ways in which it benefits people. (7)

The Malaysian Rainforest.

Trees....
ecotourism
cash crops
trees containing medicine
reduced flooding
mineral enriched soils
indigenous homes
logging

Mining
Dams
Biodiversity
Transmigration

4

Explain why weathering of rocks is more rapid in humid tropical regions than in temperate regions. You should refer to examples of different types of weathering in your answer. (no case study)

Chemical - speeds up chemical reactions and break down.

Biological- animals live in hotter climates and plants are able to grow.

Physical- greater difference in diurnal temperature increases exfoliation and freeze thaw in some cases. but high temp on its own doesn't you need the difference in temperature.

5

For a named area of tropical desert which you have studied, describe the features of the natural vegetation and explain how it can survive in the desert climate. (7)

The Sonoran desert.

-plants able to store water (succulents)
-plants only have a short life span (ephemeral) allows them to pollinate and reproduce during the brief wet systems.
-long and wide root systems for stability and so they can draw up all the water
-spiky and waxy surfaces protection with spikes so they aren't damaged or eaten by animals
-closed stomata during the day to reduce evapotranspiration and therefore dehydration.

6

Name an area which you have studied where there has been an earthquake. Describe the impacts of the earthquake. (7)

Kobe Earthquake (Japan)

-6,400 killed
-300,000 homeless
-$100 billion of damaged cause
-Hashin highway collapsed
-80% of the areas quarries destroyed- jobs lost
-fires caused by burst gas pipes
-no electricity

7

Explain how one of the following has formed in a named area you have studied. a) a spit. You should use labelled diagrams in your answer. (7)

HURST CASTLE SPIT

-prevailing SW winds push waves at oblique angle.
- longshore drift to E
-when coast changes direction at the solvent material is deposited in the sheltered headland, these build up to form a spit.
-stable when vegetation colonises eg marram grass.
-when wind is SE a hook is formed by material being pushed in a different direction.

8

Explain how and why a delta is formed. You should refer to an example you have studied and include labelled diagrams. (7)

The Ganges Delta.

-Located at northern end of the Bay of Bengal.
- As Ganges approaches the sea the gradient changes which reduces velocity.
- Loses energy so has to deposit bedload.
- Clay coagulates due to flocculation when fresh water mixes with sea water.
- deposits build up and outwards until it breaks the surface and forms islands.
- Islands colonised by various vegetation the roots then trap more sediment and help to build the islands upwards and outwards.
- Weak sea currents cannot wash the deposited sediment away and delta is formed, the river has to find alternative routes.
-Known as a bird foot delta.

9

Choose a named example of one of the following: an area of mountains, a fast – flowing river or a flood plain.
Describe the ways in which your chosen type of natural environment can provide opportunities for people who live there. (7)

The floodplain of the Ganges river.

temps abover 20 - Rich soil and plentiful water - farming.
Selling allows development of textiles industry.
Mangrove swamps and the delta - tourism
Fishing of shrimps - eat and sell.

10

Tropical storms are another type of natural hazard. Explain why the effects of tropical storms of the same strength are likely to be greater in an LEDC than an MEDC. Refer to examples which you have studied. (7)

Cyclone Nargis and general knowledge.

LEDCs- types of jobs-possessions are tangiable-houses less well designed- no electronic warning devices- few monitoring stations (tracking systems)-word of mouth.

11

Describe the advantages and difficulties for people of living on a river delta. You should refer to a delta which you have studied. (7)

The Ganges Delta.

ADS
temps abover 20 - Rich soil and plentiful water - farming.
Selling allows development of textiles industry.
Mangrove swamps and the delta - tourism
Fishing of shrimps - eat and sell.

DISADS
tropical storms -destroy farms-damage embankment-flooding-loss of fresh water-loss of possessions/food supplies.
2004 killed 800 people
Difficult and expensive to transport goods across the delta.
isolated in monsoon season

12

Explain the causes of an earthquake which occurred in a named area which you have studied. (7)

The Kobe Earthquake (Japan)
caused by 2 plate boundaries jerking past each other and a sudden movement caused vibrations which then travelled up through the earths crust and shook Japan.

13

For an area you have studied, describe the benefits and problems of living near the coast. (7)

The Queensland coast of Australia.

Benefits- sand and gravel extraction-jobs
- ports like cairn- fishing -jobs
- barrier reefs, beaches and cliffs -tourism
- 200 cruise ships dock each year-jobs- 5 billion dollars generated from tourism.

Disads- damage to properties by tropical storms(2011-150,000 no elec-50% flooded)
- building on sea front- coastal erosion- may lead to less toruists.

14

Many people live in areas where earthquakes are likely to occur. Explain why people still live in a named area which you have studied which experiences earthquakes. (7)

Kobe-
regular drills- buildings withstand earthquakes
well paid jobs
not enough money to move
imports cheap-good quality of life
jobs are plentiful at large ports and distribution centres.
flat land provides areas to build industry

15

Name an area of tropical desert which you have studied. Describe and explain the main features of its climate

The Sonoran desert.

Temperature
Rainfall (rainshadow effect)

16

For a named example of an earthquake which you have studied, describe its short-term and long-term impacts. (7)

The Kobe Earthquake (Japan)

SHORT TERM
-fires
-worries about after shocks
-people need food and medical attention
-people need rescuing
-orphans need looking after

LONG TERM
-rebuilding of homes and infrastructure
-redevelopment of some building
-reconfigure building specifications
-courses to get back to work
-rehabilitation for injured
-counselling for orphans
-tsunami warning system
-disaster management plans

17

Explain how and why coastal sand dunes have formed in a named area which you have studied. You may use a labelled diagram or diagrams in your answer. (7)

Sefton sand dunes.
Strong SW winds from Irish sea pick up sand at low tide.
As onshore wind meets strand line velocity drops.
Reduced velocity-less energy-deposition of sand.
Sand builds up- colonised by sea couch, further reduction in velocity- greater deposition.
Sand gets higher and forms Yellow dunes-marram grass starts to grow.
Sand dunes mover in land.
Sefton sands is 22km long and in some parts 500m deep.

18

What are the 3 types of carol reefs

FRINGING REEF
-circle coastline or islands
-protected by further out barrier reefs
-inhabitants suited to low energy wave environments
BARRIER REEF
-separated from land by a lagoon
-older and wider than fringing
-can follow continental coastlines
ATOLL REEF
-rise from submerged volcanoes
-confined to submerged islands

19

Name an area which you have studied where a coral reef has formed. Describe the conditions which have led to its formation. (7)

The Great Barrier Reef (Australia).

Coral polyps are invertebrates they build and make skeletons of limestone (calcium carbonate) around them selves they do not leave and new coral build on top of dead polyps.

is 2000km long has about 2900 individuals reefs.

TROPICAL SEA CONDITIONS
WARM WATER between 23 and 25 .
CLEAR SALTWATER
NO POLLUTION no sediment
SHALLOW no more than 50m deep
SUNLIGHT aids photosynthesis and allows coral to grow.

usually located between 30 N and S of the equator.

20

Explain how a tropical storm might form (7)

Cyclone Nargis

-occur between 5 and 20 degrees of the equator
-develop over ocean areas where temps are over 27 and water is at least 60m deep
-sea heats air and it rises rapidly
-in the northern hemisphere air spins anticlockwise due to the rotation of the earth
-rising air causes pressure to drop more
-more moist warm air drawn in so wind speeds increase.
-cyclone = 120 km/h
-winds in upper atmosphere then control movement.

It hit the South of Myanmar on 3 may 2008
Wind speed between 200 and 300 km/h
Storm surge of 3.6m
Irrawaddy delta was flooded

21

Many areas of natural vegetation are at risk from human activity. Name an area of tropical rain forest which you have studied and explain why and how it is at risk from human activities. (7)

Malaysian rainforest.

deforestation....
loss of biodiversity
loss of indeginous homes
loss of medicine providing trees
loss of flood prevention
loss of mineral provision
decrease in photosynthesis
no eco tourism
soil erosion

mining
tourism
damns/flooding
commercial plantations
cattle ranches
transmigration

22

Many people live in areas where there are natural hazards such as: volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tropical storms, flooding or drought. Name an area which you have studied and state the natural hazard(s) faced by the people who live there. Explain why people live in the area. (7)

Iceland - Volcano Katla

possible eruption
earthquakes

Geothermal - electricity/ water
Family home
Tourists
Minerals
Microbes/ enzymes
Livestock farming
Greenhouses- fertile soils
Fish stocks
Scientific researchers
evacuation drills regular so no hesitation.

23

Name an area which you have studied where drought occurs. Describe the problem experienced by people living in your chosen area. (7)

The south eastern Australian drought.

CAUSES
less rainfall and increased temperatures.
evaporation and transpiration levels increase.
warmest and driest years on record.

IMPACTS
framers can't graze livestock- out of business.
land degraded harder to keep Merino sheep.
Suicide rates among farmers have soared
farmers are migrating
government paying farmer who can no longer farm
tap water too salty for human consumption
water restrictions brought in and fines
bush fires destroy many homes

24

For named river which you have studied, explain the causes of flooding. (7)

The river Rhine

heavy rainfall in Switzerland (3x normal) saturated soil.
mild temperatures- melted snow in the alps, so more water than basin could cope with.
groundwater stores still high from winter rainfall.

urbanisation means less infiltration due to impermeable services.
intensive farming soil soil holds less water and increases surface run off.
Black forest clearance means less absorbed by vegetation and less rainfall absorbed by interception.
rhine has been straightened and deepened so it has a faster surge (2.5 days rather than 5)
embankments have cut off floodplains so the river has no where to go when it gets too high.

25

In many parts of the world the natural environment presents hazards to people. Choose an example of one of the following: a volcanic eruption, tropical storms or a drought. For a named area, describe the short-term and long-term effects of the example which you have chosen on people living in the area. (7)

South eastern Australian drought.

CAUSES
less rainfall and increased temperatures.
evaporation and transpiration levels increase.
warmest and driest years on record.

IMPACTS
framers can't graze livestock- out of business.
land degraded harder to keep Merino sheep.
Suicide rates among farmers have soared
farmers are migrating
government paying farmer who can no longer farm
tap water too salty for human consumption
water restrictions brought in and fines
bush fires destroy many homes

26

Flooding occurs on the flood plains and deltas of some rivers. For a river which you have studied, explain what has been done to reduce flooding (7)

The River Rhine

-EMBANKMENTS so rivers can hold more water some reinforced some simple sand and rubble. Cost £1000 million but will with stand worst floods for the next 1200 years.

-RETENTION BASINS are overflow for when the river's high. gives time for water levels to drop naturally. Progress is slow due to disagreement over why should the French build things to help the Germans.

-ARTIFICIAL FLOODPLAINS, dkyes built back from the rivers allow natural overflow. can be used for recreation or grazing when not flooded, one built behind that for high winter levels.

27

Describe the ways in which coastal areas can provide opportunities for the people who live there. You should give examples from an area you have studied. (7)

The Queensland coast of Australia.

Benefits- sand and gravel extraction-jobs
- ports like cairn- fishing -jobs
- barrier reefs, beaches and cliffs -tourism
- 200 cruise ships dock each year-jobs- 5 billion dollars generated from tourism.

Disads- damage to properties by tropical storms(2011-150,000 no elec-50% flooded)
- building on sea front- coastal erosion- may lead to less toruists.

28

In many parts of the world the natural environment presents hazards to people. Choose an example of one of the following: a volcanic eruption, an earthquake or a drought. For a named area, describe the causes of the example you have chosen and its impacts on the people living there. (7)

Chaiten volcano (Chile)

ash cloud 15km into air
pyroclastic flows
lahars

evacuation due to impending lahars
sulphur contaminated drinking water
skin, eyes and lungs irritated by ash cloud
ash 1m thick left
10km2 flattened
contaminated grazing land- no income
residents not allowed to return to town
effected international flights

29

Explain how the natural features of headlands are formed as a result of wave processes. You may use labelled diagrams in your answer. (7) (don't need a specific case study)

Waves erode a weak spot in the headland either a fault or joint between high and low tide mark.
Hydraulic action and corrosion widen and deepen the weak spot to form a cave.
Cave is enlarged and deepens until it cuts through the headland to form an arch.
Marine erosion continues to erode the foot of the arch until the roof becomes too heavy and it collapses to form a stack.
Erosion forms a wave cut notch in the base of the stack which weakens it and becomes to deep to support the stack and it collapses to form a stump.
Overtime the stump is eroded to form a wave cut platform which is only exposed by the sea at low tide and it is covered at high tide.

30

The Weather often causes problems for people. These include problems caused by flooding, drought or tropical storms. Choose either one of these hazards. Describe the problems experienced by people living in areas at risk from your chosen hazard. You may refer to examples which you have studied. (7)

Cyclone Nargis

General- 1.5 million affected.
90,000 killed
50,000 missing

Rural areas...
-95% of all homes destroyed
-600,000 hectares of farmland damaged
-60% farming implements lost
-groundwater contaminated by saltwater
-75% hospitals and clinics damaged
- airport closed
-rationing
-bus fares increased, no job, malnutrition
-sanitation flooded, water borne diseases
-economic losses of $10 billion

31

There is a plan to build a dam across the valley to create a reservoir as part of a multi-purpose scheme. Explain fully why people will have different opinions about whether this scheme should go ahead. (7)

Flooding-loss of biodiversity-people become homeless - make river navigation difficult (can't go over them)

Provides HEP power source - reduces unplanned flooding- creates a water source

32

Explain why parts of some continents, such as South America and Africa, experience a tropical rain forest climate whilst other parts experience a tropical desert climate. (7)

Dependant on position in the Hadley cell.
Desert- moisture falls over equator before arriving over the desert. Doesn't pick up nay moisture as it only travels over land.

Rainforest- Insolation from sun heats up a small area. land heats the air above it ( contains a lot of moisture) this heats up,becomes less dense and then rises. as it rises it cools. reaches its due point. water vapour condenses to form cumulonimbus clouds. There is heavy convectional rain from about 2pm until 4pm.

33

Many areas of natural vegetation are at risk from human activity. Name an area of tropical desert which you have studied and explain why and how it is at risk from human activities. (7)

Sonoran Desert

-cryptobotic crust destroyed by tourist vehicles
-lowering of the water table when it's used for irrigation.
-urban sprawl, agriculture, mining, flooding. Lake saguaro phoenix.
- loss of biodiversity
-salinization of soil, no crops
- facilities built out into the desert
-low tax so military and electronic businesses
-open cast copper mining near to Ajo (Arizoa)

34

What can be done to protect barrier reefs?

-Damaging fishing practices banned
-Conservation zones created
-No coral reef farming
-Fishing quotas imposed
-Sewage outlets moved
-Ban anchor dropping
-Reduce use of fertilizers
-Educate people about the importance of coral

35

How are coastal marshes formed?

KEYHAVEN ,HAMPSHIRE

-river Avon meeting sea means reduction in velocity so bedload deposited in sheltered tidal waters.
-flocculation causes binding and increased levels of deposition in the sheltered inland.
-deposition increases and sediments breaks the surface and form mud flats
-colonisation of vegetation
-Mud flats rise more, less often covered so salinity drops, more fertile soil.
-new plant species start to colonise and help bind the marshes together.

36

How are bars formed?

SLAPTON SANDS, DEVON

-prevailing SE winds- waves at oblique angle.
-longshore drift to the N
-When Start Bay suddenly changes direction material deposited in deep sheltered water to form a narrow sand bar.
-overtime it extends northwards across the length of the inlet
-blocks Start Stream route to English Channel creating a lagoon