Define 'long profile'?
The change in the gradient of the river course from the upper course to the lower course.
What is a 'cross profile'?
A cross section of the river - this shows a 'slice' of the river valley and channel
What is a V-Shaped valley?
A valley with steep sides and a narrow bottom that has been formed by erosion
What is a tributary?
A smaller river or stream flowing into a larger river
What is a confluence?
The point where two rivers meet
The amount of material carried by a river
What is 'sediment'?
Material such as sand and clay that is carried by a river
What are the characteristics of the upper course of a river?
- Steep gradient
- Narrow v-shaped valley
- Narrow/shallow river
- Large angular sedimant load
- Mostly erosion taking place
What are the characteristics of the middle course of a river?
- Shallower gradient
- Asymmetrical valley cross section
- Deeper river
- Smaller/rounded load
- Balance between erosion and transportation taking place
What are the characteristics of the lower course of a river?
- Very low gradient
- U-shaped valley
- Wide/deep river
- Small suspended load
- Mostly deposition taking place
The wearing away of rock by the natural processes of rivers, ice, wind and sea
Name the 4 processes of river erosion
- Hydraulic Action
Define 'hydraulic action'
Fast flowing water pushes air into cracks and the force of this causes the channel to break up over time
Sand and pebbles are dragged along the river bed, wearing it away
Rocks and stones wear each other away as they knock together
Define 'solution' (erosion)
Rocks such as limestone are dissolved in acid rainwater
The movement of eroded material by natural processes such as wind, rivers and sea
Name the 4 processes of river transportation
Big boulders and stones are rolled and dragged along the river bed
Stones and pebbles bounce along the river bed
Smaller particles and stones (e.g. sand and silt) are carried along in the rivers flow.
Some material is dissolved into the river water and transported this way
What does 'deposition' mean?
When a river drops the sediment that it is carrying
Why will a river deposit its load?
Drier weather (less water so less energy)
River slows in speed (less speed so less energy e.g. inside bend of a river)
River floods (water onto the flood plain and deposits layers fine silt and clay [this is known as alluvium] which is fertile and good for farming)
Name the river landforms formed by erosion
- Interlocking spurs
Name the river landforms formed by erosion and deposition
- Ox-bow lakes
Name landforms created by deposition
Name the landforms found in the upper course of a river valley
- Interlocking Spurs
What is a waterfall?
A vertical fall of water where the course of a river is interrupted by a steep drop in the land it is flowing over
How does a waterfall form?