What is 'food security'?
Having access to sufficient, nutritious and affordable food.
Which parts of the world consume high numbers of calories?
- Europe i.e. France
- North America (i.e. Canada and USA)
Which parts of the world consume low numbers of calories?
- South East Asia i.e. Indonesia
- Africa i.e. central Africa
Which parts of the world have a high global food supply?
Which parts of the world have a low global food supply?
Why do some countries have a high food production?
- Reliable farming methods
- High levels of intensive farming
- Suitable climate
- Government investment
Why do some countries have a low food production?
- Unreliable climate
- Frequent droughts
- Lack of investment / training
Name some areas of the world have food insecurity?
- Sub-Saharan Africa
What is meant by 'food surplus'?
A country that produces more food than it demands
What is meant by 'food deficit'?
A country that produces less food than it demands
Why is food consumption increasing?
- Increasing global population
- Increasing wealth/affluence
How does economic development cause food consumption to increase?
- People can afford more variety of foods
- Wealthy countries import large amounts of produce
- Industrialising countries experience increasing populations which increases food demand
List the impacts of food insecurity
- Soil erosion
- Rising food prices
What is 'famine'?
A large scale shortage of food which leads to populations becoming malnourished.
What can cause famine?
- Drought leading to crop failure
- Political conflict
What are the consequences of famine?
- Serious malnourishment
- Weakness and inability to work
- Too weak to fight infection/ disease
What is undernutrition?
Lack of a balanced diet
What are the impacts of malnutrition?
- Weight loss
- Health issues
- Deficiency in vitamins and minerals
How does soil erosion link to food insecurity?
Insufficient knowledge of technology to effectively farm can lead to over cultivation of land. This dries out the soil and exposes it to winds which erode the soil. Cattle may overgraze or too many trees may be remove which causes soils to bake.
Identify the physical factors that can cause food insecurity
Climate - too hot or dry to grow food
Water stress - inability to water crops
Pests / disease - inability to protect crops from diseases which can destroy a yield
Identify the human factors that can cause food insecurity
Poverty - not being able to afford to buy or effectively grow foods
Technology - not having the equipment to produce food
Conflict - makes it difficult to obtain food, some militant groups may prevent food reaching places
How does food insecurity lead to increased food prices?
- Lower supply and high demand
- Rising cost of transport / fertilizers etc
How does food insecurity lead to social unrest?
Food riots when supply is low - often coincide with high food prices
How can food production been increased?
- Aeroponics and hydroponics
- The 'new' green revolution
- Appropriate technology
What is irrigation?
Artificially watering land/crops
How does irrigation increase food supply?
- Irrigation can be used when there are water shortages
- Drip irrigation uses less water but directly waters crops
What are aeroponics?
Plants that are suspended in the air. They don't need soil to grow
What are hydroponics?
Plants that grow in gravel mixed with a nutrient solution
How do aeroponics and hydroponics increase food supply?
- As they don't require soil and much water, they are a more reliable yield
- Less likely to be affected by disease/pests
- Seasonal goods can be grown throughout the year
What is the 'new' green revolution?
A sustainable approach to farming that is more environmentally friendly that the initial Green Revolution of the 1950-60s.