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Flashcards in Physical Science Deck (66)
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Atomic number

Number of protons

1

Mass number

Number of protons and neutrons

2

Ionic bond

Transfers of electrons

3

Covalent bond

Sharing of electrons

4

Substance being dissolved (often solid)

Solute

5

Substance doing the dissolving (often liquid)

Solvent

6

Solvent and a dissolved solute

Solution

7

Measurement of the amount of substance in an object

Mass

8

Gravitational force pulling down on an object

Weight

9

Kinetic energy of molecules transferred from a warmer substance to a cooler one

Heat

10

Measurement of the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance

Temperature

11

Combining a small nuclei into larger ones, releasing energy

Fusion (sun)

12

Splitting of a large nucleus into smaller one, with the release of neutrons and energy

Fission (nuclear power plant)

13

Electrons farthest from the nucleus

Valence electrons

14

A positively charged ion

Cation

15

A negatively charged ion

Anion

16

The vertical columns on the periodic table are called:

Groups

17

The horizontal rows on the periodic table are called:

Periods

18

What indicates the size of an atom?

Atomic radius

19

Atomic radius ______ from left to right and _______ from top to bottom

Decreases; increases

20

The energy required to completely remove an electron from an atom or ion

Ionization energy

21

Ionization energy _______ from left to right and _______ from top to bottom

Increases; decreases

22

Energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom

Electron affinity

23

Measure of the attraction an atom has for electrons in a chemical bond

Electronegativity

24

Electronegativity _______ from left to right and _______ from top to bottom

Increases; decreases

25

Malleability and ductility describe what elements?

Metals

26

_______ have high ionization energy, electronegativity, poor conductors of heat, and gain electron easily

Nonmetals

27

The elements of groups IA are called

Alkali metals

28

The elements of group IIA are called

Alkaline earth metals

29

Highly reactive nonmetals are called

Halogens