Physiological Psychology: Chapter 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiological Psychology: Chapter 1 Deck (39):
1

Artificial Selection

change in the frequencies of various genes in a population because of a breeder's selection of desired individuals for mating purposes

2

Autosomal Gene

gene on any of the chromosomes other than the sex chromosomes (X and Y)

3

Biological Psychology

study of the physiological, evolutionary, and developmental mechanisms of behavior and experience

4

Chromosome

strand of DNA bearing the genes

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Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

double-stranded chemical that composes the chromosomes; it serves as a template for the synthesis of RNA

6

Dizygotic Twins

fraternal (nonidentical) twins

7

Dominant Gene

gene that shows a strong effect in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition

8

Enzymes

any proteins that catalyze biological reactions

9

Evolution

change in the frequencies of various genes in a population over generations

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Evolutionary Explanation

understanding in terms of the evolutionary history of a species

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Evolutionary Psychology

field that deals with how behaviors have evolved

12

Fitness

number of copies of one's genes that endure in later generations

13

Functional Explanation

understanding why a structure or behavior evolved as it did

14

Gene

unit of heredity that maintains its structural identity from one generation to another

15

Hard Problem

philosophical question of why and how any kind of brain activity is associated with consciousness

16

Heritability

estimate of the degree to which variance in a characteristic depends on variations in heredity for a given population

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Heterozygous

having two unlike genes for a given trait

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Homozygous

having two identical genes for a given characteristic

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Identity Position

view that mental processes are the same as certain kinds of brain processes but described in different terms

20

Kin Selection

selection for a gene because it benefits the individual's relatives

21

Lamarckian Evolution

discredited theory that evolution proceeds through the inheritance of acquired characteristics

22

Materialism

view that everything that exists is material, or physical

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Mentalism

view that only the mind really exists

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Mindbody Problem/Mindbrain Problem

question of how the mind is related to the brain

25

Monism

theory that only one kind of substance exists in the universe (not separate physical and mental substances)

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Monozygotic Twins

identical twins, derived from a single fertilized egg

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Multiplier Effect

tendency for small genetic or prenatal influences to change the environment in a way that magnifies the change

28

Ontogenetic Explanation

understanding in terms of how a structure or a behavior develops

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Phenylketonuria (PKU)

inherited inability to metabolize phenylalanine, leading to mental retardation unless the afflicted person stays on a strict low-phenylalanine diet throughout childhood

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Physiological Explanation

understanding in terms of the activity of the brain and other organs

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Problem of Other Minds

difficulty of knowing whether other people or animals have conscious experiences

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Recessive Gene

gene that shows its effects only in the homozygous condition

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Reciprocal Altruism

helping individuals who may later be helpful in return

34

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)

single strand chemical; one type of an RNA molecule serves as a template for the synthesis of protein molecules

35

Sex-Limited Gene

gene that exerts its effects primarily in one sex because of activation by androgens or estrogens, although members of both sexes may have the gene

36

Sex-Linked Gene

gene on either the X or the Y chromosome

37

Solipsism

philosophical position that I alone exist or I alone am conscious

38

X Chromosome

chromosome of which female mammals have two and males have one

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Y Chromosome

chromosome of which female mammals have none and males have one