Physiological Psychology: Chapter 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiological Psychology: Chapter 9 Deck (41):
1

Stage 1 of Sleep

• Lightest sleep
• Easily awakened
• Lasts 10 minutes
• Occurs just once a night
• Amplitude increases
• Frequency decreases

2

Stage 2 of Sleep

• Light sleep, but deeper than stage 1
• Lasts 20 minutes
• Amplitude increases
• Frequency decreases

3

Stage 3 of Sleep

• Slow wave
• Deeper sleep than stage 2
• Start of large amplitude waves (delta waves)
• Less responsive to stimuli; hard to awaken

4

Stage 4 of Sleep

• Deepest sleep
• Delta waves
• Not paralyzed, just less mobile (sleepwalking and bed-wetting can occur)
• Decreased brain activity, but more synchronized

5

Electroencephalograph (EEG)

• Not a precise measurement of what is happening in a particular neuron
• Happens outside of the cell; electrodes are placed on the scalp
• Measures electrical potentials and averages of all neuronal activity
• Picks up average electrical signal that's happening
• Finds specific patterns of firing in different stages of sleep

6

Amplitude

Largeness

7

Frequency

Rate

8

EEG of Awake and Alert Individual

• Beta waves (low amplitude, high frequency)

9

EEG of Drowsy Individual

• Alpha waves (low amplitude, lower frequency than beta; it is slowing down)

10

Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep

• a.k.a. Paradoxical sleep
• EEG looks similar to when a person is awake (low amplitude, high frequency)
• Rapid eye movement
• Postural muscle paralysis
• Irregular heart rate, blood pressure and breathing rates
• Dreams with visual images and plots occur; very movie-like

11

Early Evening Sleep

• More of stages 3-4 and less REM

12

Late Evening Sleep

• More of REM and less of stages 3-4

13

REM Cycles

• Takes about 60-90 minutes from stages 1-4
• Cycle back from stage 4, to stage 3, to stage 2
• Instead cycling back to stage 1, one will go into REM sleep
• Cycle repeats all night

14

REM Behavior Disorder

• Very active during REM; not paralyzed
• Move around vigorously during REM and act out their dreams
• Dream about defending themselves against attack
• Can injure themselves and others
• Occurs mostly in older people
• Move around vigorously during REM, acting out dream. Dreams are often irrational, so actions would be irrational as well
• Multiple areas of damage in pons and midbrain

15

PGO Waves

• PGO: Pons, Geniculate, Occipital
• High-amplitude electrical potentials that occur in PGO order

16

Pons During Sleep

• Pons is activated first and turns on REM
• Pyramidal tract is involved and sends motor information
• Pons sends inhibitory messages down to the spinal cord and causes immobility

17

Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

• Located in the thalamus
• The visual part of the thalamus

18

Occipital Lobe (V2)

• Visual component of dreams

19

Delta Waves

• Large amplitude waves
• Loopy, big and slow

20

Norepinephrine, Serotonin, Histamine and Orexin

• Increased wakefulness
• Decreased slow wave sleep
• Decreased REM

21

Histamine

• Antihistamines block receptors
• Nondrowsy antihistamines don't cross blood-brain barrier

22

Orexin

• Produced by neurons in the hypothalamus
• Turns on eating

23

Acetylcholine and Sleep

• Increased wakefulness
• Decreased slow wave sleep
• Increased REM

24

GABA and Sleep

• Decreased wakefulness
• Increased slow wave sleep
• Increased REM

25

Adenosine

• Produced by metabolic activity in cells; the more active the cells are, the more adenosine is made
• Builds up during the day
• High levels of it turn on sleep and is decreased by acetylcholine
• During sleep, levels decrease because there is less cell activity during sleep
• Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors and sleep does not get turned on

26

Melatonin

• Hormone; endocrine system
• Pineal gland, between thalamus and midbrain
• Natural rhythm; melatonin released 2-3 hours prior to normal bedtime
• Turns on sleep
• Helps adjust to new time zones

27

Effects of Melatonin

• Longterm use in lab animals known to cause:
- Impaired learning
- Impaired fertility
- Impaired fetal development
• Unknown longterm effects in humans

28

Sleeping Pills

• Turn off wakefulness
• Norepinephrine antagonist
• Not getting the right sleep in the amounts you need after becoming dependent

29

Newer Generation Sleeping Pills

• Turns on sleep
• GABA agonist
• Bizarre side effects occur during sleep and while awake; may not be able to control impulses, could develop gambling problems
• Ambien, Lunesta

30

Rozarem

• Melatonin agonist
• Prescribed
• Good if the person has a hard time initially getting to sleep

31

Night Terrors

• Not to be confused with nightmares.
• Occurs during NREM sleep, common in children. Not associated with dreams. Child wakes up screaming.
• Nightmares occur during REM, the child can usually describe it.
• Children often grow out of it.

32

Fatal Familial Insomnia

• Rare genetic disorder
• Onset usually in middle age
• Death follows within 2-3 years
• Damage to thalamus

33

Fatal Familial Insomnia Symptoms

• Starts with bouts of insomnia and cognitive disturbances
• Confusion, slowed cognitive processes, memory deficits much more pronounced with this group of people
• Hallucinations
• Extreme weight loss
• Complete lack of sleep
• Dementia and then death

34

Stages of Metabolism

• Absorptive Phase (when we are eating)
• Fasting Phase (when we are not eating)

35

Absorptive Phase

• Occurs during and just after eating
• Carbs are broken down into glucose

36

Glucose

• Primary source of fuel in the brain and spinal cord

37

Storing Carbs in the Absorptive Phase

• Insulin released by pancreas.
• Glucose enters cells and is used as fuel.
• Some excess converted to glycogen by liver. Remaining excess converted to triglycerides and stored as fat.
• Proteins broken down to amino acids and used for protein synthesis. Excess converted to triglycerides and stored as fat.
• Fats remain as fat. It is not used as fuel in absorptive phase. Immediately converted to triglycerides and stored.

38

Fasting Phase

• Nutrients are not immediately available from digestive system
• Fuel comes from short term and long term reserves

39

Short Term Reserve

• Glycogen in liver converted back to glucose
• 300 calories of glucose stored in liver
• Supplies Central Nervous System

40

Long Term Reserve

• Adipose tissue
• Triglycerides broken down into fatty acids and glycerol
• Glycerol converted by liver into glucose for central nervous system

41

Triglycerides

• Fatty acids used by body cells.