Physiological Psychology: Chapter 3 Flashcards Preview

Physiological Psychology > Physiological Psychology: Chapter 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiological Psychology: Chapter 3 Deck (63):
1

2-AG (sn-2 Arachidonylglycerol)

chemical that is produced in large quantities by the brain and that attaches to cannabinoid receptors

2

Acetylcholine

chemical similar to an amino acid, except that the NH2 group has been replaced by an N(CH3)3 group; a neurotransmitter

3

Acetylcholinesterase

enzyme that breaks acetylcholine into acetate and choline

4

Affinity

tendency of a drug to bind to a particular type of receptor

5

Agonist

drug that mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter

6

Alcoholism

inability to quit drinking or to limit intake of alcohol in spite of strong intentions to do so

7

Amino Acids

acids containing an amine group

8

Amphetamine

stimulant drug that increases the release of dopamine

9

Anandamide

naturally occurring brain chemical that binds to the same receptors as cannabinoids

10

Antagonist

drug that blocks the effects of a neurotransmitter

11

Anterior Pituitary

portion of the pituitary gland, composed of glandular tissue

12

Autoreceptor

presynaptic receptor that is stimulated by the neurotransmitter released by the presynaptic cell itself, feeding back to decrease further release of the transmitter

13

Cannabinoids

chemicals related to ”9THC, the component of marijuana that alters experience

14

Catecholamines

compounds such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine that contain both catechol and an amine (NH2)

15

Cocaine

stimulant drug that increases the stimulation of dopamine synapses by blocking the reuptake of dopamine by the presynaptic neuron

16

COMT (Catechol-O-methyltransferase )

enzyme that converts catecholamines into synaptically inactive forms

17

Dopamine Transporter

membrane protein that enables the presynaptic neuron to reabsorb dopamine after releasing it

18

Efficacy

tendency of a drug to activate a particular kind of receptor

19

Endocrine Gland

structure that releases hormones into the blood

20

Excitatory Postsynaptic Potential (EPSP)

graded depolarization of a neuron

21

Exocytosis

excretion of neurotransmitter through the membrane of a presynaptic terminal and into the synaptic cleft between the presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons

22

G-protein

protein coupled to GTP (guanosine triphosphate, an energy-storing molecule)

23

Gases

one of the categories of neurotransmitters, including nitric oxide and possibly others

24

Hallucinogenic Drugs

drugs that grossly distort perception, such as LSD

25

Hormone

chemical secreted by glands and conveyed by the blood to other organs

26

Inhibitory Postsyaptic Potential (IPSP)

temporary hyperpolarization of a membrane

27

Ionotropic Effect

synaptic effect that depends on the rapid opening of some kind of gate in the membrane

28

Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)

enzyme that converts catecholamines and serotonin into synaptically inactive forms

29

Metabotropic Effect

effect at a synapse that produces a relatively slow but long-lasting eff ect through metabolic reactions

30

Methadone

chemical similar to heroin and morphine but often given as a substitute because it can be taken orally, in which case its effects rise and fall more slowly

31

Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

stimulant drug that increases the stimulation of dopamine synapses by blocking the reuptake of dopamine by the presynaptic neuron

32

Monoamine

nonacidic neurotransmitter containing an amine group (NH2), formed by a metabolic change of certain amino acids

33

Neuropeptide

chemical formed of a chain of amino acids; released by a neuron to diff use widely, aff ecting many other neurons

34

Neurotransmitter

chemical released by neurons that affects other neurons

35

Nicotine

drug found in tobacco that, among other effects, stimulates certain acetylcholine receptors

36

Nitric Oxide

gas released by many small neurons; alters blood flow as well as neuronal activity

37

Opiate Drugs

class of drugs derived from, or similar to those derived from, opium poppies

38

Oxytocin

hormone released by the posterior pituitary; also a neurotransmitter; important for sexual and parental behaviors

39

Peptide Hormone

hormone composed of a short chain of amino acids

40

Pituitary Gland

endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus

41

Posterior Pituitary

portion of the pituitary gland, which releases hormones synthesized by the hypothalamus

42

Postsynaptic Neuron

neuron on the receiving end of a synapse

43

Presynaptic Neuron

neuron on the releasing end of a synapse

44

Protein Hormone

hormone composed of a long chain of amino acids

45

Purine

category of chemicals including adenosine

46

Reflex

consistent, automatic response to a stimulus

47

Reflex Arc

circuit of neurons from the sensory neurons to muscle responses that produces a reflex

48

Releasing Hormone

hormone released by the hypothalamus that fl ows through the blood to the anterior pituitary

49

Reuptake

reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the presynaptic terminal

50

Second Messenger

chemical within a neuron that, when activated by a neurotransmitter, initiates processes that carry messages to several areas within the neuron

51

Self-Stimulation of the Brain

behavior that is reinforced by direct electrical stimulation of a brain area

52

Spatial Summation

combination of effects of activity from two or more synapses onto a single neuron

53

Spontaneous Firing Rate

periodic production of action potentials by a neuron in the absence of synaptic input

54

Stimulant Drugs

drugs that tend to produce excitement, alertness, elevated mood, decreased fatigue, and sometimes increased motor activity

55

Synapse

point of communication at the gap between two neurons or between a neuron and a muscle

56

Temporal Summation

cumulative effect as a result of repeated synaptic stimulation within a brief time

57

Transmitter-Gated Channel

ion channel that opens temporarily when a neurotransmitter binds to it

58

Transporter

membrane protein responsible for the reuptake of a neurotransmitter after its release

59

Type I Alcoholism

generally less severe type of alcohol abuse with a gradual onset and only a weak genetic predisposition; occurs about equally in men and women

60

Type II Alcoholism

severe alcohol abuse with a strong genetic basis and rapid onset early in life; much more common in men

61

Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone)

pituitary hormone that raises blood pressure and enables the kidneys to reabsorb water and therefore to secrete highly concentrated urine

62

Vesicles

tiny, nearly spherical packets near the axon terminals filled with the neurotransmitter

63

”9tetrahydrocannabinol (”9THC)

chemical found in the leaves of marijuana plants