Physiological Psychology: Chapter 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiological Psychology: Chapter 5 Deck (24):
1

Apoptosis

developmental program by which a neuron kills itself at a certain age unless inhibited from doing so

2

Cerebrovascular Accident

stroke; temporary loss of normal blood flow to a brain area

3

Closed Head Injury

sharp blow to the head resulting from a fall, an automobile or motorcycle accident, an assault, or other sudden trauma that does not actually puncture the brain

4

Collateral Spout

newly formed branch from an uninjured axon that attaches to a synapse vacated when another axon was destroyed

5

Deafferent

to remove or disable the sensory nerves from a body part

6

Denervation Supersensitivity

increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell after removal of an axon that formerly innervated it

7

Diaschisis

decreased activity of surviving neurons after other neurons are damaged

8

Differentiation

formation of the axon and dendrites that gives a neuron its distinctive shape

9

Disuse Supersensitivity

increased sensitivity by a postsynaptic cell because of decreased input by incoming axons

10

Edema

accumulation of fluid

11

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

condition resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol and marked by decreased alertness, hyperactivity, varying degrees of mental retardation, motor problems, heart defects, and facial abnormalities

12

Focal Hand Dystonia

musician's cramp, a condition in which the touch responses to one finger overlap those of another, leading to clumsiness, fatigue, and involuntary movements

13

Hemorrhage

rupture of an artery

14

Ischemia

local insufficiency of blood because a blood clot or other obstruction has closed an artery

15

Migration

movement of neurons toward their eventual destinations in the brain

16

Myelination

development of a myelin sheath that insulates an axon

17

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF)

protein that promotes the survival and growth of axons in the sympathetic nervous system and certain axons in the brain

18

Neurotrophin

chemical that promotes the survival and activity of neurons

19

Penumbra

area of endangered cells surrounding an area of primary damage

20

Phantom Limb

continuing sensation of an amputated body part

21

Proliferation

production of new cells

22

Stem Cells

undifferentiated cells that can divide and produce daughter cells that develop more specialized properties

23

Synaptogenesis

formation of synapses

24

Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA)

drug that breaks up blood clots