Physiology of Adrenal Glands Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology of Adrenal Glands Deck (16):
1

Where do the 2 adrenal glands lie?

Sit superior and medial to upper pole of kidneys

2

From the capsule down, what are the 3 layers of the adrenal cortex?

Zona glomerulosa
Zona fasiculata
Zona reticularis

3

What part of the adrenal gland is below the zona reticularis?

The medulla
m = middle

4

What does the zona glomerulosa produce and how is it regulated?

Produces mineralocorticoids and aldosterone
Aldosterone is regulated by K+ and ATII

5

What does the zona fasiculata produce and how is it regulated?

produces cortisol and glucocorticoids
regulated by ACTH

6

What does the zona reticularis produce and how is it regulated?

Produces androgens and DHEA
Regulated by ACTH

7

What 2 factors help regulate cortisol and androgen production?

CRH and ACTH

8

How is aldosterone regulated? and what activates it?

RAAS - activated in response to decreased blood ressure

9

When aldosterone is produced what does it allow the production of and what does this cause?

Production of ATII which causes direct (vasoconstriction) and indirect (aldosterone) methods of BP elevation

10

In bone and connective tissue, what does cortisol do?

Accelerates osteoporosis
decreases wound healing
decreases serum calcium
decreases collagen formation

11

What is the effect of cortisol on renal function and thus circulation?

Increases renal blood flow and GFR
Increases cardiac output
Increases BP

12

How does cortisol affect metabolism?

Increased blood sugar
Increased lipolysis, central redistribution
Increased proteolysis

13

What receptors does aldosterone bind to and where are they found?

Mineralocorticoid receptor/MRE
found in kidney, gut, salivary glands and sweat glands

14

What are the 3 effects produced by aldosterone when it binds to its receptor?

Na+/K+ balance
Blood pressure regulation
Regulation of extracellular volume

15

How is the adrenal medulla innervated?

Innervated by pre-synaptic fibres from sympathetic nervous system

16

What is secreted by the adrenal medulla?

Neuroendorcine (Chromaffin) cells - secretes catecholamines