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1

a group of specialized myocardial cells, located in the wall of the right atrium that controls the hearts rate of contraction

the pacemaker of the heart

sinoatrial node (SA node)

2

the specialized mass of conducting cells in the heart located at the atrioventricular junction

atrioventricular node (AV node)

3

to decrease the electrical potential across a membrane, as when the inside of a neuron becomes less negative to the outside

depolarize

4

to restore the difference in charge between the inside and outside of the plasma membrane of a muscle fiber or cell following depolarization

repolarize

5

local control of blood distribution (through vasodilation) in response to a tissues changing metabolic needs

autoregulation

6

fat cells

adipocytes

7

the mechanism by which an increased amount of blood in the ventricle places a stretch on the cardiac muscle fibers, thereby causing a stronger ventricular contraction to increase the amount of blood ejected

Frank-Starling mechanism

8

the pressure in the aorta and pulmonary trunk, that the left and right ventricles of the heart must overcome to eject blood

afterload

9

the pumping up of muscle that happens during a single exercise bout, resulting mainly from fluid accumulation in the interstitial and intracellular spaces of the muscle

transient hypertrophy

10

swelling resulting from an excessive accumulation of fluid in the tissues of the body

edema

11

a measure of the amount of air that passes through the lungs in one minute; calculated as the tidal volume multiplied by the ventilatory rate

minute ventilation

12

the sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle against too much stress

muscle spindles

13

a sensory organ with a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force

Golgi tendon organs (GTO)

14

point of transition between predominately aerobic energy production to anaerobic energy production; involves recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers and identified via gas exchange during exercise testing

ventilatory threshold

15

a branch of the autonomic nervous system responsible for mobilizing the body's energy and resources during times of stress and arousal

opposes the physiological effects of the parasympathetic nervous system

sympathetic nervous system

16

a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that is involved in regulating the routine functions of the body

opposes the physiological effects of the sympathetic nervous system

parasympathetic nervous system

17

the production of glucose from non-sugar substrates such as pyruvate, lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids

gluconeogenesis

18

the release of triglycerides from fat cells

lipolysis

19

three fatty acids joined to a glycerol (carbon and hydrogen structure) backbone; how fat is stored in the body

triglycerides

20

soreness that occurs 24 to 48 hours after strenuous exercise, the exact cause of which is unknown

delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)

21

an abnormal increase of ketone bodies in the body; usually the result of a low-carbohydrate diet, fasting, or starvation

ketosis

22

polypeptide structurally similar to insulin that is secreted either during fetal development or during childhood and that mediates growth hormone activity

insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)

23

type of stretching that involves taking the joints through their ranges of motion while continuously moving

often beneficial in warming up for a particular sport or activity that involves the same joint movements

dynamic stretching

24

a series of chemical reactions that act to break pyruvate down to carbon dioxide, water, and many hydrogen-powered molecules known as NADH and FADH2

Kreb's cycle

25

a deficiency of glucose in the blood commonly caused by too much insulin, too little glucose, or too much exercise

most commonly found in the insulin-dependent diabetic and characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, confusion, headache, nausea, or anxiety

hypoglycemia

26

an internal state of physiological balance

homeostasis

27

a metabolic by-product of anaerobic glycolysis

when accumulates it increases blood pH, which slows down enzyme activity and ultimately causes fatigue

lactic acid

28

the narrowing of blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, particularly in the periphery of the body (limbs)

peripheral vasoconstriction

29

the process by which the body generates heat from energy production

thermogenesis

30

a cluster of factors associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease and diabetes

metabolic syndrome (MetS)