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1

systolic blood pressure

contraction phase of the cardiac cycle

blood leaves the ventricles

the pressure exerted by the blood on the vessel walls during ventricular contraction

2

diastolic blood pressure

relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle

blood fills the ventricles

the pressure in the arteries during the relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle

3

lipid

fats used in the body and bloodstream

4

glucose

a simple sugar

the form all carbohydrates are used as body’s principle energy source

5

muscular strength

the maximal force a muscle can exert during contraction

6

muscular endurance

the ability of a muscle to exert force against a resistance over a sustained period of time

7

range of motion (ROM)

the number of degrees through which an articulation will allow one of its segments to move

8

body composition

the make up of the body in terms of the relative percentage of fat-free mass and body fat

9

lean body mass

the components of the body (apart from fat) including muscles, bones, nervous tissue, skin, blood, and organs

10

adipose tissue

fatty tissue

connective tissue made up of fat cells

11

essential fatty acids

fatty acids that the body needs but cannot synthesize

includes linolenic (omega-3) and linoleum (omega-6) fatty acids

12

storage fat

fat contained within adipose tissue that acts as an energy store and thermal insulation

cushions internal organs

13

hypertension

high blood pressure

elevation of resting blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg

14

carbohydrate

the body’s preferred energy source

15

adenosine trisphosphate (ATP)

a high energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function

produced both aerobically and anaerobically and stored in the body

16

lactate

metabolic by-product that causes changes in muscle pH and eventual muscle fatigue

a chemical derivative of lactic acid

formed when sugars are broken down for energy without the presence of oxygen

17

pulmonary ventilation

the total volume of gas inspired or expired per minute

18

cardiac output

the product of heart rate and stroke volume

the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute

expressed in liters of blood per minute

19

enzymes

a protein that speeds up a specific chemical reaction

20

hemoglobin (Hb)

the protein molecule in red blood cells specifically adapted to carry oxygen molecules (by binding with them)

21

tidal volume

the volume of air inspired per breath

a function of both rate and depth of breathing

22

emphysema

pulmonary disease

destruction of lung alveoli and surrounding connective tissue

airway inflammation, reduces ability to effectively inhale and exhale

23

stroke volume (SV)

quantity of blood pumped per heartbeat

the amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle of the heart with each beat

24

ejection factor

the percentage of the total volume of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during the systolic contraction of the heart

percentage of the end diastolic volume that is ejected with each contraction

normally 50 - 60% at rest
increases to 60 - 80% during exercise

25

ischemia

a decrease in the blood supply to a bodily organs, tissue, or part caused by constriction or obstruction of the blood vessels

26

mitochondria

the power plant of the cells where aerobic metabolism (production) occurs

27

viscera

the collective internal organs of the abdominal cavity

28

vasoconstriction

narrowing of the opening of blood vessels

29

vasodilation

increase in diameter of the blood vessels

30

amino acids

building blocks of protein