Physiology Review I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology Review I Deck (53):
1

leydig cells

produce testosterone

2

stimulation of leydig cells

hCG - from placenta
fetal LH
LH

3

sertoli cells

AMH

4

DHT effects

2 sex characteristics
male external
prostate

5

5 alpha reductase

testosterone > DHT

6

oligospermic men

hCG therapy

7

androgen insensitivity

x-linked recessive
no androgen receptor

8

puberty

pulsatile GnRH

9

aromatase

can get testosterone - estradiol

breasts in genetic male

10

Tanner stages

1 - preadolescent
2 - enlarged testes
3 - enlarged penis
4 - dark scrotum / penile growth
5 - adult sized

11

ABP

keeps high T in testes

12

hypogonadism

low spermatogenesis or steroidogenesis

low FSH, LH, and T

13

prostate cancer

GnRH therapy
continuous high dose
suppress gonadotropin release

14

sertoli cell function

blood-testis barrier
produce ABP
AMH, aromatase, inhibin production

15

testosterone therapy

won't help infertility
bc of the need for high intratesticular T levels

this will only inhibit LH secretion
-leads to decreased testosterone

16

eunuchoidism

lack secondary sex characteristics

17

lobule of testes

split by CT septae

18

leydig cell shape

large polyhedral
rounded nuclei w/ 1-2 nucleoli
produce androgens

close to vascular channels

19

3 phases spermatogenesis

spermatocytogenesis
meiosis
spermiogenesis

20

spermatocytogenesis

PGC > spermatogonia > primary spermatocyte

21

meiosis

primary spermatocyte >
secondary spermatocyte >
spermatid

22

spermiogenesis

spermatid > spermatozoa

23

type B spermatogona

46/2N
to 2x primary spermatocyte

24

primary spermatocyte

largest**

25

peritubular contractile cells

in seminiferous tubules

26

seminiferous tubules

solid - preadolescent
canalize - adult

27

spermatogenic epithelium

4-8 layers stratified germ cells
supporting sertoli cells scattered

28

sertoli cell histo

tall columnar
large pale oval nuclei
prominent nucleus
membrane infoldings
cytoplasm indented

29

blood testis barrier

sertoli cells
tight junctions
-spermatocytes from spermatogonia

30

spermatogonia

sit on BM

46 2N

31

meiosis I

primary > secondary

to 23 2N

32

meiosis II

secondary > spermatid

to 23 1N

33

final maturation sperm

epididymis

34

primary spermatocyte

46 2N

35

spermatid

23 1N

36

secondary spermatocyte

23 2N

37

sperm structure

head - with acrosome (hyaluronidase)
neck - long filaments with mitochondria
tail - 9+2 cilium (MT arrangement)

38

seminiferous epithelium stage

6 in human

like wave in stadium

39

segment

between identical stages

40

waves

between similar stages

41

straight tubules

simple columnar epithelium

opens into rete testis

42

ductus epididymis

tall pseudostratified columnar with stereocilia

continuous with ductus deferens

43

seminal vesicles

diverticulum of ductus deferens

produce bulk of ejaculate - high in fructose

44

BPH

glands in central zone

45

peripheral zone

prostate carcinoma

palpable on DRE

46

corpora amylacea

prostate calcification
increase with age

47

prostate secretions

thin, milky, alkaline

acid phosphatase - measurable

48

bulbourethral glands

in UG diaphragm
-pre-cum clear mucus secretion

49

glands of littre/morgani

in urethra

50

glans epithelium

stratified, squamous dry
-continuous with urethral epithelium

51

erection

parasympathetic
-straigthen helicine arteries
-closes shunts

tunica albuginea prevents expansion

52

flaccidity

helicine arteries recoil

53

ejaculation

prostate gland discharge initiates true ejaculation
then seminal vesicle

bulbocavernosus - forces semen to outside