Physiology Test 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Physiology Test 4 Deck (28):
1

First physiological function in any developing mammal embryo

Cardiac system

2

Used to move nutrients and waste throughout the body

Cardiac system

3

Parts of the Cardiac System

Vessels (arteries, vein, and capillaries)
Fluid (blood plasma)
Pump (heart)
Lymphatic System

4

Outer connective tissue layer covering the heart
Heart is moved into pericardial sac during development
Fluid filled for lubrication of heart during beating
Fluid increases during periods of injury or infection (can constrict heart motion)

Pericardium

5

Layers of the Heart

Epicardium - outside
Myocardium - muscle
Endocardium - lining on inside of the heart

6

Chambers of the Heart

Right atrium
Right ventricle
Left atrium
Left ventricle

7

Atrioventricular Valves (AV)

Separates atria from ventricle
One-way blood flow
Right AV = tricuspid
Left AV = bicuspid or mitral

8

Semilunar Valves

Separate heart (ventricle) from vessels
Both are tricuspid
Right pulmonary semilunar valve
Left aortic semilunar valve

9

Arteries

High oxygen
Exception is pulmonary vein

10

Vein

Low oxygen
Exception is pulmonary artery

11

Blood Flow Through the Heart

Right atrium
Right ventricle
Left atrium
Left ventricle

12

Right Atrium

Receives blood from venous system (return from body)
Cranial and caudal vena cava
Passive return
Low in O2, high in CO2
Pumps blood through tricuspid valve into right ventricle

13

Right Ventricle

Still low in O2, high in CO2
Pumps blood through right pulmonary semilunar valve into pulmonary artery to lungs

14

Left Atrium

Blood returns from lungs via pulmonary veins
High in O2, low CO2
Pumped through mitral (bicuspid) valve into left ventricle

15

Left Ventricle

High O2, low CO2
Blood pumped through the aortic semilunar valve into systemic blood supply
- Systemic = whole body
- Via the aorta

16

Continuous network
Complete system called circulatory system
Lining
- cells of the inner lining of blood vessels is the same as the lining of the heart
- called endothelial cells
Terminology
- in general, all blood flow away from heart takes place in arteries (with exception of the pulmonary artery)
- all blow flow to the heart takes place in veins

Blood Vessels

17

Blood leaves Left Ventricle, large arteries

Large amount of elastic fibers
- help move blood by rebound effect

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Small arteries

Some of the elastic fibers replaced by smooth muscle
Smooth muscle contractions constrict artery causing decreased blood flow

19

Arteriole

Highly muscular
Little to no elastin
Regulate blood flow to capillary bed
- sphincter

20

Capillaries

Single layer of endothelial cells
Laid out in groups (called capillary beds)
Site of gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between body and circulatory system
- through slits (clefts) between cells

21

Venule and Veins

Return vessels for moving blood back to the heart
Contain valve at irregular intervals to prevent backflow
Lowest pressure of any region of circulatory system
- however, constriction of major veins can be used to raise blood pressure
First vein structure are the venues
- little muscle
True veins
- more muscle
- largest veins are the vena cava which return blood directly to the heart

22

The Pulmonary System

Run by right ventricle
For blood circulation through the lungs
Capillary beds paired to smallest branches of lungs (alveoli)
- exchange of CO2 for O2

23

The Systemic Circulatory System

Run by left ventricle
Supplies oxygenated blood and nutrients to body
First branches supply the heart
Portal Vessels
- re-branching of vein to form capillary beds
- cleans blood (liver and kidneys)
- Delivers hormones directly to target organs (hypothalamus and Anterior pituitary)

24

Lympathic System

Only one that are not connected directly to the heart (open-ended)
Lymph capillaries
- found in interstitial space
Larger lymph vessels parallel veins of cardiac system
Afferent lymph vessels empty into lymph glands

25

Afferent lymph vessels empty into lymph glands

Site of germinal cells that form lymphocytes
Mobile lymphocytes
- generally enter blood stream to function
- antibody production
- sensitized lymphocytes
Fixed macrophages

26

Fixed Macrophages (White Blood Cells)

Engulfs materials into lymph as it passes through lymph node
Enlarged lymph node due to trapped material, inflammation or proliferation of macrophages
Important that lymph nodes are checked during meat processing for signs of disease
Cancer cells can also be trapped by lymphatic system, serve as a conduit for cell to spread throughout the body
- empties fluids from lymph nodes into blood vessels by means of large efferent vessels

27

Lymph fluid

Similar to interstitial fluid
Possible less protein
Capillaries specialized fro protein absorption

28

Larges lymphoid organ
- (oid) acting like
- circulating fluid is blood
- two filtering regions (red and white)
Effects on blood
- site of destruction of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
-aged and abnormal
- storage site for iron
- reservoir for blood
- especial erythrocytes

Spleen