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What is meant by quantitative pahrmokinetics?

Changes in plasma/ tissue drug concentration with time


What is the drug absorption rate?

The amount of drug absorbed from administration site to measurement site per unit time


What order of kinetics does oral/ IM routes take?

First order
(zero order= IV infusion)


What are the kinetics from IV bolus administration?

Considered instant


Describe first order kinetics

- Absorption rate is proportional to amount of drug


Describe 0 order kinetics

-Absorption rate increases in a linear fashion with time. INDEPENDENT of amount of drug delivered.


What is the drug elimination rate?

Amount of PARENT drug eliminated from the body PER UNIT TIME

(with respect to IRREVERSIBLE elimination of parent drug)


What is Vi?

Initial volume - blood + interstitial fluid


Define Vd

Volume into which a drug appears to be distributed with a concentration equal to that of plasma
- Amount of drug in body at time (t)= Vd at time x blood/plasma conc at time


What affects Vd?

The affinity of the drug for plasma and tissue. Some prefer to move to tissues and so have a higher Vd


If Vd is 0.1-0.3L/kg what does it tell you about the drug?

That is is most likely water soluble and moves mainly to the ECF


If Vd is 0.6l/kg what does it tell you about the drug?

that most likely it distributes to BOTH ECF and ICF


If Vd is around 2l/kg what does it tell you about the drug?

that most likely is it accumulating at a particular site e.g. fat


What is total body (blood) clearance

The volume of blood/ plasma cleared of parent drug per unit time
(imagine it as flow rate)


How do you calculate elimination and clearance?

-Rate of elim= blood clearance x blood concentration
-Total clearance = Cl hep + Cl ren + Cl pulmonary


How do you determine total CL after IV bolus?

-Plasma clearance after IV bolus= Dose/ AUC


Describe bioavailability and calculating CL

Bio= the EXTENT (amount) of absorption from admin site to measurement site
F= (Dose iv/ Dose oral) X (AUC oral/ AUC iv)


How do you calculate the elimination rate constant K?

=Clearance/ Vd


What is the elimination rate constant?

Constant relating to rate of elimination to the amount of drug in the body


How do you calculate the rate of elimination?

Plasma Cl x plasma concentration


Describe the one compartment model

-Assumed drug is instantly distributed
- Cl, Cd and half life are CONSTANT (exponential)
-therefore decay= Vd= Vi= Dose (C0)


What does the half life equal in a single compartment model?

natural log of 2 / elim K
(0.0693 x Vd /Cl)


In the 2 compartment model why is there 2 half lives and which is generally more important?

- Because of a change in Vd (implies Vs initially increases)
-Normally B but not always (the one with the biggest AUC)


How does Vd relate to kinetics of drug elimination?

- Phase 1: drug partitions into tissues
-Phase 2: drug slowly cleared from tissues


On average how many half lives does it take to reach steady state in multiple dosing?

around 5


How do you calculate average concentration ss?

Avrgconc ss = (Therapeutic dose x F)/ (CL x dosing interval)


Is Average concentration ss dependant upon Vd?

No it is independant


What is a loading dose?

An initial higher dose that it given to load up the tissues so you reach steady state quicker. You then drop down to maintenance dose.
Most useful for drugs that are eliminated slowly (have a long half life)
-Loading dose= (Therapeutic Css X Vss) / F


What is the importance of plasma half life and dosing frequency?

- Peak to trough is large when only giving 1 dose a day, means you run the risk of falling out the therapeutic window. Dosing more frequently can stop this.


Is plasma clearance always linear?

- it is driven by enzyme/ transported kinetics so saturation can occur.
-Vm x C/ Km x C