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Flashcards in POB Exam 1 Deck (144):
1

The characteristic of life

Organized

Require materials and energy

Reproduce and develop

Respond to stimuli

Maintain homeostasis

Adaption

2

The characteristic of life: organization

Atoms
Molecules
Cells
Tissue
Organs
Organs systems
Organism
Population
Communities
Ecosystem
Biosphere

A monkey calls to oh oh oh people call every body

3

The characteristic of life: requiring materials and energy

Metabolism and photosynthesis

4

The characteristic of life: reproduce and develops

Organisms reproduce

Genes, DNA

Mutation

Development

5

The characteristic of life: Respond to stimuli

Detect react to internal or external events

6

The characteristic of life:

Maintain homeostasis

Homeostasis-

Ability to maintain a stable internal environment

7

The characteristic of life:

Adaptions

Allow them to adapt and evolve to be able to live in the environment

8

Taxonomy

Identifying and grouping organism according to certain rules

9

Systematics

Study of the evolutionary relationships between organisms

10

Taxa categories

Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

11

3 domains are

Archaea
Bacteria
Eukarya

12

Archaea

Organisms Living in extreme conditions

13

Eukarya are

“You”

Protista
Fungi
Plants
Animalia

14

Scientific names

Two part names

First word is genus
Second word is species

15

Scientific method in order

Observation
Hypothesis
Prediction and experiment
Presenting and analyzing
Conclusion

16

Scientific laws

Explain what happens

(A pattern in nature)

17

Scientific theory

Explains why and how a law exist

(Explain pattern in nature)

You use inductive reasoning when trying to explain law

18

Inductive reasoning

Specific to general

19

Deductive

General to specific

20

Experimental variable

Independent variable

Factor of the experiment being tested

What you change in experiment

21

Response variable

Dependent variable

Resulting or change that occurs due to experimental variable

Thing I try to test or message

22

Null hypothesis

No effect be control and experience or same

23

Alternative hypothesis

There is a difference be control and experience

24

Confounding variables

Extra variables

How to control:
Replicates - same experiment performed many times

25

Science and technologies

Interdependent

Science finding out something in the world

Technology used what science found out to create something

26

Challenges for science and society

Loss of diversity

Ermerging and reemerging disease

Climate change

27

Components of a virus

Capsid - protein shell
Nucleus acid core - DNA/RNA
Envelope - surrounds capsid (extra protection)
Spikes for attachment of host cells

28

Virus are

Obligated parasites
Acellular - no cells

29

Atoms

Smallest part of an element

30

Atomic number

# of protons in nucleus

31

Mass number

Sum or protons and neutrons in nucleus

32

Isotope

Same element with different # of neutrons

33

Use radioactive isotopes to cure things

Low radioactive
- Tracer or chemical tag to detect molecular changes

High radioactive
- radiation that can harm cells, DNA or cause cancer
- kill bacteria, fungi, cancer cells

34

Molecule is formed by

Two or more atoms forming together

35

Elements bond together

Compound

36

Ionic bonding

Atoms attract but one takes an electron from the other

37

Covalent bond

Two atoms share electrons

38

No polar covalent bond

Electrons being shared are equal

39

Polar covalent bond

Sharing of electrons bw two atoms are unequal

40

Hydrogen bonding

Relatively weak bond by itself but strong when a lot

Due to pos hydrogen bonding to negative oxygen or nitrogen

41

Properties of water due to hydrogen bonding

High heat capacity
- does not change temp easy

High heat of vaporization
- makes heatong by evaporation efficient

Can dissolve many molecules
- hydrophilic molecules attract water (like)
- hydrophobic molecules repel water (don’t like)

Cohesion and adhesion

Ice is less dense then water

42

Cohesion

Water molecules stick to water molecules

Ex)surface tension

43

Adhesion

Water molecule clinging to different substance

Ex) water droplets on glass

44

pH scale

Acidic solution (high H and low OH)
0-6 pH

Neutral solution
7pH

Basic solution (low H and high OH)
8-14 pH

45

Buffer keeps pH

Within normal limits

46

Organic molecules always contain what two molecules

Carbon and hydrogen

47

Isomer

Molecule with same molecular formula but different structure shape

48

Functional groups

Specific combinations of atoms that ways have same chemical elements properties and always react the same way

49

Functional group -OH

Hydroxyl Group

Ex alcohol

50

Functional group -NH2

Amino group

Ex amine

51

Functional group -CH3

Methyl Group

Methylated compound

52

Monomers and polymers

Monomers
- simple organic molecules

Polymers
- large organic molecules made from monomers

53

Dehydration reaction (synthesis)

Monomers to polymers
Joins monomers

Also create water

54

Hydrolysis reaction (degradation)

Polymers into monomers

Water added

55

Sugar molecules all end in what

-ose

56

Carbohydrates

Universally used energy source for living organism

57

Monosaccharides

A single sugar molecule (simple sugar)

- Glucose (hexose sugar)
- fructose

58

Disaccharides

Contain two monosaccharides that joined through dehydration reaction

-maltose, sucrose, lactose

59

Polysaccharide

Long polymers chains of glucose subunits

- starch
Plants use for energy storage

- glycogen
Used by animals for energy storage

- cellulose
Plant cell walls

- chitin
Exoskeleton of bugs and crustaceans

60

Fate come from what

Animals

61

Oils come from what’s

Plants

62

Saturated fats

Solid at room temp.
Strait
No double bonds

63

Unsaturated fats

Liquid at room temp.
Bent
Double bonds

64

Trans fat

Produce by hydrogenation turn fat into solid

65

Steroids

Backbone of four fused carbon rings

Cholesterol

66

Proteins are polymers of

Amino acids (monomers)

67

Amino acid built like

Central carbon bonded to hydrogen and three functional group

68

Enzyme do what

Speed up reactions

69

Level of protein organization

Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
Quaternary

70

Primary structure

Sequence of amino acids that join to form poly peptide

71

Secondary structure

Hydrogen bonding of amino acids cause shape in polypeptide

Alpha helix

Beta plated sheet

72

Tertiary structure

Covalent bonding of r groups

3D shape

73

Quaternary structure

Two or more polypeptides join to form protein

74

DNA match based

AT
CG

Adinine thymine
Cytosine guanine

75

RNA based

AU
CG

Adinine uracyl
Cytosine guanine

76

ATP is what

Energy

77

Cell wall

Contains polysacchrides that support and protect the cell

Plants and fungi

78

Plasma membrane (cell membrane)

Phospholipid biylayer with embedded proteins

Regulates what comes in and out of cell, contains cytoplasm and all organelle

79

Nucleus

Contains: nuclear envelope, nucleoplasm, chromatin, nucleoli


Storage of genetic info : synthesis of dna and rna

“Purple orange”

80

Nucleoli (nucleolus)

[] area of chromatin, rna and protein

Ribosomial subunit formation

Pit of orange

81

Nucleoplasm

Semi fluid in nucleus

Purple orange juice

82

Chromatin (inside nucleus)

DNA and associated proteins in the semi fluid

83

Nuclear envelope

Double membrane of nucleus’s that is continuous with ER

SKIN OF ORANGE

84

Nuclear pores

Wholes in nuclear envelope

85

Ribosomes

Meant for ( protein and rna in two subunits ) Protein synthesis

86

Rough ER

Folded membrane with ribosomes

Folding modifications and transport of proteins for export

Protein synthesis send to golgi

Mailman

87

Smooth ER

Folded membrane w/ no ribosomes

Lipid and carbohydrate synthesis

Detoxification

88

Golgi apparatus

Processing and packaging and distribution of protein and lipids

Mail room and ship again

89

Lysosomes

Intercellular digestion

90

Vacuoles and vesicles

Vacuole are larger
Vesicles small

Storage

91

Peroxisomes

Breakdown fatty acids and other metabolic task

92

Mitochondria

Power house of the cell make atp

Cellular respiration

93

Chloroplast (plants protist)

Photosynthesis

94

Cytoskeleton

Microtubles
Intermediate filiments
Actin filiments


Shape cell and movement of parts

95

Chloroplast

Storma - space inside
Grana - stacked pancakes
Double membrane
Thylakoids (one pancake)

96

Actin filiments

Long flexible fibers

Interacts with motor molecules to move muscles

97

Cellia and flagela

Cillia small hairs

Flagella tail like thing on sperm

Movement

9 + 2 pattern of micro tubes

98

Centrioles

9 + 0 pattern of micro tubes


Formation of basal bodies

99

Mitochondria

Double membrane
- outer and inner
Matrix - open space
Cristae - folds

100

3 parts of cell thoery

All organisms made up of cells

Cells are basic unit of living things and structure

Cells come from pre existing cells

101

Endosymbiosis theory

Mitochondria and chloroplast used to be prokaryotes

Got ingested by bigger cell and Just lived together through symbiotic relationship

102

Cell size and surface to volume ratio

Small size = large surface area = more efficient

103

Fluid mosaic

Fluid phospholipids tails

Mosaic membrane proteins

104

Channel proteins

Allow particular molecule to cross membrane freely

105

Carrier protein

Selectively interacts w specific molecule so that it can cross membrane

106

Cell recognition protein

Determine if molecules is “me” if not it will send signal to attacks

107

Receptor protein

Specific molecule binds to carry specific function lock key

108

Enzymatic protein

Catalyze reactions

109

Energy not required for

Diffusion

Or facilitated diffusion

110

Diffusion

Toward location concentration

Concentration gradient

Liquid soluble molecules and gases

111

Facilitated diffusion

Toward lower concentration

Channels or carrier proteins on gradient

112

Energy is required on

Active transport

Exocytosis

Endocytosis

113

Active transport

Toward higher concentration

Carrier protein plus energy against gradient

114

Exocytosis

Exit cell

Vesicle send stuff out

Macromolecules

115

Endocytosis

Goin inside cell “cell eating”
Vesicle formation

Phago large

Pino Small

Receptor mediated - coated pit w receptors

116

Hypotonic

Less concentration of water inside cell

High [ solute ] outside

Water goes in

Hippo get fat

117

Hypertonic



Lower concentration of solute inside compared to outside - water goes out

Cell get small

Hyper kid is skinny

118

Isotonic

No net change of water movement inside or outside of cell

119

Erect is the ability to

Do work

120

Kinetic energy

Motion energy

121

Potential energy

Stored energy

122

Chemical energy is

Food or things ingested

Stored in bonds

123

Mechanical energy

Chemical energy from an animal is turned into some sort of kinetic energy

Muscle movement

124

1st law of thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed

125

2nd law of thermodynamics

Energy cannot be converted from one state to another without the loss of energy (heat)

126

Metabolism

Sum of chemical energy in cell

127

Catabolism

Breaking down of molecules

128

Anabolism

Building of molecules

129

Entropy (disorder)

Always increasing

More org
More potential Clean room
Less stable


Less org
Less potential Messy room
More stable

130

Every reaction has

Reactant that turns into product

131

Endergonic reactions

Require input of energy

Anabolism

132

Exergonic reaction

Release energy

Catabolism

133

ATP

(Adinine triphosphate)

Nitrogen base adenine
And 5 carbon sugar (ribose)

134

Couples reaction

Energy released by an exergonic reaction used to drive endergonic reaction

ATP turning into ADP +P

135

Enzymes do what to reaction

Increase or rate of reaction

Also called catalyst

136

All enzymes are proteins

But not all proteins are enzyme

137

End in -ase is what

Enzyme

138

Enzyme must interact with

Substrate to be active


E + S —

139

Enzyme is never used up in reaction true or false

True

140

Enzyme have an active site for substrate

Only specific enzyme fit specific substrate


Lock and key

141

What affect enzyme

Temp and pH

Temp increase speed up enzyme activity but too much will denature

Optimum pH works best

142

Feedback inhibition

Competitive
- product binds to active site blocking substrate


Non competitive
- product binds to enzyme changing shape stops accepting substrate

143

Cofactors

Inorganic ions that aid enzyme activity

Metals

144

Coenzyme

Non protein organic molecules that aid enzymes activity

NAD+ FAD+ vitemens