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Flashcards in POB Exam 2 Deck (128):
1

Photosynthesis does what

Convert solar energy into chemical energy of a carbohydrate

2

Carbon dioxide enters the leaves through

Stomata

3

Filled interior of chloroplast is called

Stroma

4

Flattened sacs in chloroplast is what

Thylakoids

5

Thylakoids are stacked to form what

Grana

6

Chlorophyll and other pigments part of the thylakoid membrane do what

Absorb solar energy

7

Chloroplast has a what kind of membrane

A double membrane

Outer and inner membrane

8

Photosynthetic equation

6CO2 + 6H20 —

9

What are the two set of reactions in photosynthesis

Light reactions (dependent of light)

Calvin cycle (independent of light)

10

Electromagnetic spectrum

Gamma ray—

11

What are the photosynthetic pigments

Chlorophyll a and b

Carotenoids

Each of them absorb a specific wavelength

12

Leaves appear green because what light is reflected

Green

All other colors absorbed, reason we see a color is because it is reflected off

13

Light reaction of photosynthesis contains what process

Photosystem 2

Electron transport chain

Photosystem 1

14

Where does the light reactions take place

Thylakoid membrane

15

Ps2 does what?

Pigment complex absorbs solar energy
—>
Energy passes from on pigment to
another until reaching reaction center —>

Electrons energized
(Electron acceptor)

Water is split to replace energized electrons —

16

At the electron transport chain what happens

Carries energy from ps2 to ps1

Energy is release to pump hydrogen ions into the thylakoid space forming a gradient

When the ions flow through atp synthase it forms ATP

17

PS1 does what

Absorbs solar energy

Low energy ps2 electrons used to replace those lost in ps1

Adjacent to enzyme that reduces NADP+ to NADPH
(Accept electrons from ps2 to do this)

18

Hoover dam = light reaction

Reservoir = thylakoid space bc it store something

Rain water (light from sun)

Hills that collect water (Ps2 and ps1)

Water kept inside reservoir - hydrogen ions

Water released that power turbine (atp synthase) energy is formed (atp)


19

Where do plants get their carbon to grow their tissue

Inorganic carbon through leaves

20

Calvin cycle purpose is to do what

Use co2 to produce carbohydrate for plant

21

Where does the Calvin cycle take place

Stroma

23

Calvin cycle has three steps what are they

Co2 fixation

Co2 reduction

Regeneration of RuBP

24

Co2 reduction does what

It reduces Co2

Co2 becomes CH20

Possible by energy and electrons supplied by ATP and NADPH from light reactions

25

Regeneration of RuBP does what

Reforms RuBP by

Going through the cycle 3 times allows G3P exit, which uses 5 of them for 3 cycle

Creating RuBP

26

Why is the Calvin cycle important

G3P ca be used to for many other molecules like

Fatty acid and glycerol for plant oil
Glucose
Fructose
Starch and cellulose

27

Photosynthesis vs cellular respiration

Both use cellular respiration
Mitochondria
Break down glucose
O2 to co2

Only plants do photosynthesis
Chloroplast
Build glucose
Co2 to o2

Both use electron transport chain and chemiosmosis to produce ATP

28

DNA and RNA are polymers of what

Nucleotides

(They are polymers (nucleic acids) of monomers (nucleotides) )

29

DNA nucleotides have 4 nitrogenous bases

Adenine

Thymine

Cytosine

Guanine

30

DNA vs RNA

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

RNA Ribonucleic acid
Uses ribose instead of deoxyribose
Uracil instead of thymine
Single strand

31

Who discovered dna

James Watson and Francis crick worked out 3D structure of DNA based off of Rosalind Franklin

Double helix is dna structure

32

DNA structure

Double helix

Held by hydrogen bond

At
CG

33

DNA replication does what basically

DNA to DNA (identical to parent strand)

It is semi conservative
Old strand makes new strand

DNA helicase
Breaks unzip dna strand

DNA polymerase
Puts new strand of dna together

DNA ligase seal any breaks in sugar phosphate backbone

34

Gene expression is the process

Of using gene sequence to synthesize a protein

35

How many process is inside gene expression

Transcription

Translation

36

Transcription

Take place in nucleus

DNA to RNA

DNA serves as template for mRNA formation

Uses RNA Polymerase to create mRNA

starts transcribing when there is a certain nucleotide sequence called promoter

Terminator tells it to stop transcribing

37

Genetic code

Triplet code - each three nucleotide unit of mRNA molecule is a codon

38

mRNA codons

There are 64 different mRNA Codons

61 code for particular amino acids

Redundant code - codes of some amino acid have numerous code words

Protect against mutation

39

Co2 fixation has what happening

Co2 is attached to 5 carbon RuBP molecule

Happens 3 times

Results in 6Carbon molecule splits into two 3 carbon molecules

Done by RuBP carboxylase (stroma is full of this

40

Translation has 3 parts what are they

Initiation (needs energy)

Elongation (need energy)

Termination

41

Translation: initiation

Brings ribosome components together

Small ribosome sub unit
mRNA
Initiator tRNA (attach to start codon AUG)
Large ribosomal subunit

3 binding site for tRNA

P (peptide) site
A (amino acid) site
E (exit) site

42

Translation: elongation

Process by which polypeptide increases in length

43

Steps in elongation

tRNA approaches A site (A tRNA w attached peptide is at P site)

tRNA binds to A site

Peptide bond forms to attach the new amino acid to the peptide chain

Ribosome moves forward, empty tRNA exits the E site and tRNA carries new amino acid to the ribosome

44

Translation: termination

Termination occurs at the stop codon

Causes formation of 2 ribosomal subunits

45

What are the differences btw introns and Exons

Introns are removed

Exons are used bc they have DNA that can make protein
They are the expressed portion of genes

46

Gene mutations are what

Permanent change in the sequence of bases in dna

47

What causes gene mutations

Error in replication

Mutagens

Transposons

Viruses

48

Error in replication

DNA replication errors are rare for mutation source

Bc DNA polymerase proof reads to catch error

49

Mutagens are what

Environmental influences that can cause mutation

DNA repairs enzyme constantly to monitor and repair

50

Transposons are what

Specific DNA sequences that move within or between chromosomes

(Weird occurrence were they get cut and spliced and out at diff spots)

51

Viruses can do what to cause mutagen

They insert their dna into host chromosome

Can cause HPV - leads to cervical cancer

52

3 type of point mutations are

Substitution
May change specific amino acid (change a nucleotide)

Insertion (frameshift)
Insert nucleotide

Deletion (frameshift)
Delete nucleotide

53

Silent mutation

May have no affect (change amino acid but no affect)

54

Frame shift mutations are what

One or more nucleotide are either inserted into or deleted from dna

Results in new sequence of codons and nonfunctional proteins

55

The inability to breakdown phenylalanine results in what

PKU

Mental impairment

56

The inability to convert tyrosine to melanin results in what causes condition

Albinism

58

Translation is

Occurs in cytoplasm

RNA to protein

Coordinated by ribosomes

Anticodons on the tRNA recognize the appropriate codon on the mRNA

Codes for certain amino acid

59

The stages of the cell cycle are

Interphase
-G1
-S
-G2

Mitotic
-Mitosis
-Cytokinesis

60

The cell cycle deals with what kind of cells and for what reason

Somatic cells (body cells)

For creation of new cells for reproduction
Growth
Repair
Replacement

61

Apoptosis is what

Programmed cell death (to decrease # of cell)

Ex)
-caterpillar to butterfly
-tail of tadpole
- webbing be human finger and toes
- destroy bad cell (prevent cancer)

62

Stages of interphase

G1 (checkpoint)
- cell growth before synthesis of dna
- if dna damaged go to apoptosis or go to G0 such in nerve or muscle cells

S (DNA synthesis)
DNA replication so that each chromosome contain 2 sister chromatids

G2 (checkpoint)
- cell growth
- cell synthesizes proteins for cell division
- if dna damaged go to apoptosis

63

Mitosis does what

Separation of sister chromatids and results into two daughter cells each containing complete identical set of chromosome and

64

Mitosis

Division of nucleus’s that follows interphase

65

Cytokinesis

Division of cytoplasm after mitosis

66

Chromosome numbers

Diploid (2n) cell have two of each number of chromosome
- 46 chromosome (2 pair of 23) = body cell

Haploid (n) cell have half the diploid number of chromosome
- human egg or sperm = 23 (1 pair)

67

If parent cell has a diploid of 14, how many chromosome will each New daughter have after mitosis

14

Bc dna replication produces duplicated chromosomes

Daughter cell same a parent

68

Stages in mitosis

Prophase - centrioles form, chromosome condense, nuclear envelope disappear

Metaphase- Line up at middle, spindle fibers attach to sister chromatids

Anaphase- sister chromatids pull apart

Telephase- nuclear envelope forms, Chromatid to chromatin

Cytokinesis- cleavage furrow, cytoplasm split

PMAT-C

69

What are kinetochores

Group of motor proteins that pull chromosomes along

70

Cytokinesis in animal vs plant

Animal
-splitting of cytoplasm (cleavage furrow)

Plant
-incomplete separation
-form cell plate between

71

What do proto oncogenes do

They are the gas peddle

They promote the cell cycle (prevent apoptosis)

Divide

RAS protein
Promote cell division
Normally must receive signal to initiate
Mutated always initiate

72

What do tumor suppressor genes do

They are brakes

They stop cell cycle
No divide

P53
Transcription factor that controls gene for cell cycle inhibitor

73

What is crossing over and when does it take place

It is the exchange of genetic material between non sister chromatids

It happens during prophase 1 of meiosis 1 (1st thing to happen)

74

What is independent assortment and when does it happen

Homologous pairs line up randomly and they split into non distinct pairs

Occurs at metaphase (line up) and splits at anaphase during meiosis 1

75

Homologous chromosomes are match in

Same length

Same centrosome position

Same gene location

76

Homologous chromosomes separate during what phase of meiosis

Anaphase 1

77

When do sister chromatids spectate in what phase

Anaphase (in mitosis)

Meiosis 2 (anaphase 2)

78

In what organ does meiosis take place in humans

In sex organs (reproductive organs)

79

What happens during fertilization

Gametes (haploid) fuse to from zygote and diploid number is restored

80

Mitosis is most like what

Meiosis 2

81

Mitosis vs meiosis

# divisions
Mitosis has 1 meiosis has 2

Results in Mi(2 diploid cell) in Me 4(haploid cell)

Occurs inside: Mi(somatic cell) Me(reproductive cell)

Genetically identical: Mi(yes) Me(No)

When does it occur: Mi(all the time) Me(certain time for reproduction)

Role in body: Mi(repair, cell growth) Me(reproduction)

82

Cancer cells can survive and proliferate elsewhere in body due to

Moving to other tissue by vessels know as metastasis

Angiogenesis is new blood vessels growing into the tumor
- give it oxygen- deprive surrounding tissue

83

Genetics

Study of patterns of inheritance of trait

84

Mendel studying inheritance of traits through

Pea plants

85

Law of segregation

Each parent has Two factors (allele) for each trait
-diploid

Factors separate during formation of gamete

Each gamete only contains one factor
-haploid

Fertilization gives new individual two factors for each trait

86

Phenotype

What you look like

87

Genotype

Alleles carries by chromosome responsible for given trait

88

Dominant allele refers to what

Capital letter

Allele that will mask the expression of the recessive trait (lower case letter)

Dominant gene will show the phenotype

89

Breeding of homologous dominant and homologous recessive

PP (purple) x pp (white)

F1 (all will have same genotype bc Pp = purple)

F2 will have (3/4) purple (1/4) white
(PP, 2Pp, pp)

90

Homozygous

Two alleles same

91

Heterozygous

One dom

One recessive

92

Pressence of freckles

Dominant (F) Freckles

Recessive (f) no freckles

93

Mono hybrid cross is what

Cross of single gene

94

Heterozygous cross
Ff x Ff

Genotypic ratio:
1:3 homo D 2:2 hetero 1:3 Homo Res
1:2:1

Phenotypic ratio
3:1 freckles 1:3 none

95

Gentetic different be pure bred and mutt is likely that mitts are

Heterozygous for more allele

96

Test cross is a cross of

Cross bw dominant phentyoe and recessive phentype to find out genotypes of the one you don’t know

Ex if offspring with recessive is phenotype produced then dom parent must be hetero

97

Dihybrid cross

9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio if heterozygous crosses

Cross of two traits
Ex)brown hair and long fingers

98

Dihybrid cross of heterozygous give phenotypic ratio of

9:3:3:1

99

Law of segregation states that what

Each gamete gets only one letter (allele) of each kind

100

Law of independent assortment states what?

That all combinations of alleles are possible

101

Autosomal recessive disorders are

Disorders linked to the recessive gene

If Hr X Hr

Then offspring will be affected

Equal chance for both sex

You have if you are homozygous recessive

Carrier if heterozygous

102

What is cystic fibrosis

It is when the chloride ions channel is defective due to a mutation

Causes abnormal thick mucus in bronchiol tubes of pancreatic ducts

This is due to no osmosis being able to be done

103

Autosomal dominant disorders are

Causes by the dominant gene

If parents are heterozygous some of the offspring will not have affect

104

Fatal familial insomnia what is it

It is a prison disease of the brain

Caused by misfolding of protein

105

Incomplete dominance is what

Both traits are co expressed

Ex) curly hair
Flamilial hyper cholesterol emia
Blood
Skin color

106

Blood toys ABO

IAi IAIA = A

IBi IBIB = B

IAIB = AB

ii = O

107

Polygenic inheritance is what

Is a trait controlled by two or more genes

Dominant genes are additive

Ex) skin color and height

108

How does environment affect gene expression

Temperature of eggs of crocodiles determine sex

Temperature affects himilyan rabbit color marking

109

Are freckles a dominant trait

Yes

110

BRCA gene

Deals with breast cancer

It is a tumor suppressor gene (promotes apoptosis)

111

Flamilial hyper cholesterol emia is What

High cholesterol in your blood due to bad receptor proteins bc receptors don’t bring cholesterol from blood for processing

Homozygous dominant normal
Heterozygous get mild
Homozygous recessive get very bad

112

What is Down syndrome?

It is caused when you have an extra chromosome in 21

Tis a trisomy on the 21 set

113

As you get older and try to have kids your chances of having a kid with what increases

Down syndrome

114

What are sex linked genes

Genes that a controlled by the X Y chromosome

115

Most sex linked defects are caused by the What chromosome

X

116

What two chromosomes make you female

Xx

117

What two chromosomes make you male

XY

118

Male humans get there X chromosome from their

Mother

119

Most x linked genetic disorders are what for females

Recessive

120

Reason makes get the sex links disorder often

Makes only have one allele (so whatever is on that allele determines the phenotype

121

What are some examples of x linked recessive disorders

Red green colorblindess

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Hemophilia

122

Change in chromosome number is due to what

Nondisjunction

123

What is a trisomy

Chromosome is present in 3 copies

124

What is a monosomy

Chromosome is present in one copy

125

Which are more tolerable trisomies or monosomies

Trisomy

126

Why might girls born with abnormal numbers of X chromosome be able to survive

Extra X chromosome turns into a bar body

127

What is Turner syndrome

They are females with one X chromosome

128

Triplo x female

Have more x
Chromosome about 3

129

What is polyploidy

It is when errors in mitosis or meiosis produce species with more Than two chromosome sets

130

Xeroderma pignentosum Xp

Genetic disease in which the enzyme that are needed to repair dna damage due to Uv light are defective