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Flashcards in POB Exam 4 Deck (149):
1

What is an animal

They are
Multicellular eukaryotes

Move with muscle fibers

Ingest food

2

Zygote divides by mitosis to form a hollow ball called a

Embryonic development

Blastula

3

Animals evolved from what/ when

Protist 600 MYA

4

What are the two major groups of animals

Invertebrates and vertebrates

5

Invertebrates characteristics

Lack endoskeleton of bone or cartilage

Evolved first and outnumber vertebrates

6

Vertebrates characteristics

Have endoskeleton of nine or cartilage

7

Humans are radially symmetrical t or f

False we are bilateral

8

What is the types of symmetry

Asymmetrical
Radial symmetry
Bilateral symmetry

9

What is asymmetrical

No symmetry

Ex. Sponge

10

What is radial symmetry

Circular organization - logitudinal slices will produce mirror images

Ex. Hydra

11

Bilateral symmetry

Definite right and left halves
Cut down middle produce mirror image

Ex. Human

12

Level of animal organization

Cellular: no true tissue Ex.Sponges

Tissue: have 2 of 3 germ layers - ectoderm and endoderm Ex. Cnidarians

Organ: have all 3 germ layers - ectoderm endoderm mesoderm Ex. Majority of animal

13

What are germ layers in order from out to in

Ectoderm

Mesoderm

Endoderm

If have all three they are called triploblastic

14

Embryonic development: fate of blastopore

If protostome mouth develop 1st
M to P

If deuterostomes anus develop 1st
A to D

15

Phylogenetic tree of animals: evolutionary level of organization in order

Multicellularity
True tissue
Bilateral symmetry
Protostome development
Deuterostomes development

16

Sponges characteristics

Asymmetrical
Cellular level of organization
Multicellular but lack true tissue
Filter feeders
Has sponging ( proteinaceous skeleton )

17

Cnidarians characteristic

Radial symmetry
True tissue
All aquatic
Stinging cells (cnidocytes)
Ex. Hydra, anemones, coral, sea jelly

18

Cnidarian two forms

Polyps and Medusa

Polyps (secondary stage) - baby
Medusa (primary stage) - adult

19

Polyps characteristic

Mouth and tentacles are directed up

Ex. Sessil
Sea anemones
Corals

20

Medusa characteristic

Bell shaped mouth directed down
Ex. Jelly fish

21

Which nidarian represents polyps form
Jelly
Coral

Coral

22

What falls under trochozoans

Flatworm
Annelise
Mollusks

23

Flatworms characteristic

Incomplete digestive tract (poop out of mouth)
No body cavity

Two types:
Non parasitic and parasitic

24

Non parasitic flatworm

Planarian
- freshwater
- eye spot
- feed on small organism
- muscle and excretory, reproductive and digestive systems

25

Parasitic flatworm

Tapeworm
- host eat meat with bladder worm
- worm grows in intestine feeding of nutrients

26

Mollusks characteristics

Visceral mass - include organs
Foot: muscular portion (locomotion)
Mantle: covering the enclosed visceral mass

Ex. Gastropod Cephalopod Bivalves

27

Gastropod characteristic

Snail and conchs

Foot is flattened
(Muscle contractions along foot)

Herbivores and carnivores

Shells

28

Cephalopods characteristics

Octopus and squids
Foot has evolved into funnel or siphon
Powerful beak and radula for feeding
Cephalization present
Octopus no shell - squid have reduce shell

29

Bivalves characteristic

Clam oyster scallops and mussels
Two part shell composed of protein and calcium carbonate
Gills in mantle cavity (gas exchange)
Filter feeder

30

Annelids characteristic

Segmented - each move independently

No internal Skelton - hydrostatic Skelton

Movement by contraction and expansion of body segment

Ex. Earthworm

31

Earthworm characteristic

Scavenger
Head not developed
Gas exchange throughout body (slimy)
Hermaphroditic (both sex)
- both have sperm and egg
- clitellum secrete mucus to protect sperm

32

Ecydsozoans characteristic

Arthropod and roundworm

Outer covering to protect and support animal
Periodically sheds

33

Arthropod characteristic

More than 1 milk species described 30 mill may exist (mostly insect)

Segmentation
Joint appendages
Exoskeleton
Respiratory organs (variety)
Metamorphosis

Ex. Crustacean Insect Arachnids

34

Crustacean characteristic

Largely marine arthropod
-barnacle shrimp lobster crab
Some fresh water (crayfish)
Some terrestrial (sow or pill bug)

Hard exoskeleton

35

Insect characteristic

Divided into 3 parts
- head - abdomen - thorax
H- sensory antennae, simple eyes, mouth
A- internal organ
T- 3 pair of legs and wings

36

Insect diversity facts

1 mill described species
400k species of beetle

37

Insect adapt to land how?

Respiratory systems (spiracles lead into trachea)
- small tube of air throughout body

Reproduction and development
- internal fertilization (protect gamete and zygote)
-

38

Insect metamorphosis?

Gradual metamorphosis
Larva (baby) —> becomes adult (look different)
Ex. Caterpillar to Butterfly

Complete metamorphosis
Nymph (bby) —> looks like adult but small —> adult (larger nymph)

39

Arachnids characteristics

Cephalothorax has six pair of appendages
-chelicerae ,pedipalps ,four pair of walking legs
Abdomen contains organs

Ex. Scorpion spider ticks mites

40

Scorpions characteristic

Oldest terrestrial Arthropods
Pedipalps are large pincers
Long abdomen with poison barb

41

Tick and mites characteristic

Parasites - transmit disease like Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Lyme disease

42

Spider characteristic

Narrow waist separate cephalothorax from abdomen

Chelicerae have fangs that have venom
Book lungs
Silk gland

43

Which animal is closely related to human?
Cnidarians
Arthropod
Sea stars

Sea stars

44

Deiterostomes: invertebrate kind characteristic

Diverse group of marine animal
Endoskeleton (rich calcium plates)
Spikes sticking out of skin

Ex. Star fish

45

Star fish characteristic

Adult - radial symmetry
Baby - bilateral

Five rated body with mouth on underside anis on top

Reproduction:
Sexual and asexual

46

Do all chordates have vertebral column

False not all

47

Chordate characteristics

Notochord
Dorsal tubular nerve chord
Pharyngeal pouches
Post anal tail

48

Notochord what is

Dorsal supporting rod, replaced by vertebral column during development of vertebrates

49

Dorsal tubular nerve chord is what

Nerve chord contains fluid canal

50

Pharyngeal pouches are what

Final development depends on the adult chordate

Most have but only in embryonic development

51

Post anal tail is what

Tail that extends beyond anus

52

Evolutionary trends among chordates

Non vertebrate
- tunicates and lancelets (no vertebrate)

Vertebrate chordate
- jaw less fish - cartilagenous fish - bony fish (ray + lobbed) - amphibian - reptile - bird - mammal

53

Non vertebrate chordate characteristic

Do not develope vertebral column from notochord

Ex. Lancelets
Shallow coastal water
All four chordate characteristic in adult
Filter feeder

54

Characteristic of vertebrate chordate

Embryonic notochord replaced by vertebral column
Endoskeleton w muscles
Rapid movement/ rapid respiration
Strong cephalization

Ex. Jawless fish - cartilaginous fish - bony fish - amphibians- reptile - bird - mammals

55

Jawless fish characteristic

Cylindrical body
No scale
No jaw or fin
Extreme slime defense
Ex. Hagfish

56

Fish with jaws characteristic

Tooth bearing structures in head evolved from gill arches

Cartilaginous fish
- ray, skates, shark
Skeleton is cartalaginous
Sense electrical currents

57

Bony fish characteristic

Ray finned
- paired fins supported by bony ray
- swim bladder
- streamline shape
- bony scale

Lobbed fin
- developed lungs
- evolved into amphibian
Ex. Coelacanth
Ex. Tiktaalik

58

Amphibians transition to land how

Tetrapods (four limbs)
Ears
Larynx for vocalization
Larger brain then fish relative to body
Small lungs in adults
Larval stage (water) adult (land)
Reproduction in water

59

Penguins can keep warm bc they have fur (true or false)

False they have feathers

60

Reptiles characteristic

Evidence says birds are living dinosaurs

Today’s true reptiles include:
Turtle alligator snake lizards birds

Reptiles are ectothermic (use environment to get heat) - very efficient
(Exclude birds)

61

Adaption to land by reptile

Body covered by scales to protect drying out
Well developed senses
Well developed lungs with rib cage

Sexual reproduction: males has penis fertilize internally female who have shelled egg

Amniotic egg

62

What is an amniotic egg

Egg provides embryo with o2 and food and water

Remove nitrogenous waste

Prevent egg from drying

Tiny holes in them

63

Humans have ancestor that could lay eggs true or false

True

64

Feathers reptiles: bird characteristic

Feathers are modified scales, feet have scales
Amniotic eggs instead leathery like reptile
Endothermic
Hollow bones

65

Anatomy and physiology of bird

Forelimbs are modified into wings
Hollow light bones
Beak replaced jaw with teeth
Large sternum aid flight muscle

66

What makes a mammal a mammal

Hair and mammary gland

67

Mammals characteristic

Evolved from reptile
Body hair - milk mammary gland
Endothermic
Respiratory circulatory system (efficient)

High level of care for young
-young born alive (except monotremes)
Internal development shelter young
Nurse offspring

68

Monotremes characteristic

Lay hard shelled amniotic eggs

Secrete milk into body surface (both male and female)
- babies lick it up

Exist only in Australia
- spiny ant eater and platypus

69

Marsupial characteristic

Young begin develop within female body - born immature
Development in pouch

Ex. kangaroos and koala Virginia opossums

70

Placental mammals characteristic

Eggs are internal - develop in uterus
Amniotic egg becomes placenta
Limbs allow rapid movement
Large lungs expanded by rib cage
Constant body temperature

71

Primate characteristic

Most adapted for arboreal life (in trees)
Hand and feet have 5 digit (opposable thumb) - good grip / get food

Shorten snout eyes in front (depth perception and color)

One offspring per birth interval

Brain large

72

Most organisms are at edge of survival... why?

Constant competition for resources
Extra materials and energy needs to reproduce

73

Why does behavior persist

Bc make survival and reproduction more likely

74

What is nature in Nature vs nurture

Nature is genetic influence on behavior

75

What is nurture in nature vs nurture

Nurture is environmental influence on behavior

76

What is a proximate question

What about the particular organism brings about this behavior; how does this happen

-physical chemical structure
- genes
- hormonal reaction

77

What is ultimate question

Why does this particular behavior persist in organisms

Evolutionary pressure and adaptions

Evolutionary history

78

When you touch a hot plate and your arm automatically recoils
What is the proximate cause of the reaction

Nerve ending in your skin are stimulated and signals are sent to contract muscles

79

FosB gene of mice is characterized by what?

Maternal behavior is dependent on this gene - when exposed to babies it activates

Mice with regular gene show maternal

Mice with mutated gene do not show maternal

80

Feeding behavior in garter snake characteristic

Inland garter does not eat slug

Coastal garter snake eat slug

81

What is innate behavior

Behavior that has Strong genetic control

Always performed the same way

Ex. Dog kill shake

82

Fixed action pattern FAP what is it

Specific behaviors elicited by a sign stimulus

83

Learning is what

A durable change in behavior brought about by experience

Can change innate behavior

84

Laughing gull FAP and goose egg retrieval FAP

Laughing full chicks peck at the mothers beak when parent swings bill to get food

Goose retrieve item regardless of what it is beside the nest

85

What is imprinting

A simple form of learning

Ex. Chicks follow first moving thing they see

Can only imprint on something during the sensitive period of its life

- only time when imprinting can occur

Ex. Salmon - chemical make up of birth river
Goats raising sheep (vice versa)

86

Imprinting can occur anytime of an animals life t or f

False only during sensitive period

87

Associative learning

A change in behavior that involves an association between two events

Ex. Monarchs are poisonous
Bird eat monarch get sick don’t eat again

88

Classical conditioning

Two different stimuli are presented together

Suggest an organism can be trained or conditioned to associate a specific response to specific stimulus

89

Operant conditioning

Strengthens a stimulus - response to connection

Training animal to do trick by rewarding it

90

Animal communication

A signal by a sender that influences behavior of a receiver

91

Diversity of social behavior

Solitary - interact only during reproduction

Some pair - cooperate to raise young

Organize - cooperative manner in a society

92

Types of communications

VCAT

Visual
Chemical
Auditory
Tactile

93

Which type of communication plant use

Chemical and visual

94

Fire flies use communication by

Different light pattern

95

Behavior that effect fitness: territorial behavior

Territoriality and fitness
- defense of territory
Bc of mating area or food source

Has certain cost... of not they wouldn’t protect

96

Modern human exhibit territorial behavior?

Yes true

97

What does it mean to be polygamous

Makes monopolize females

- usually primates are this
Adaptive for females to be concerned with good food , so they’d clump
- limit number of receptive female
- male compete for limited number of them

98

What does it mean to be monogamous

Only one mate

Ex. Gibbons display pair bonding

Common when
- males have limited mating opertunities
-territoriality exist
- make certain babies are his

99

Sexual selection

Form of natural selection that favors features which increase an animals change of mating

Common result-
Female has choice - limited number of egg
Males compete - fertilize as many to get fit

100

Are humans subjected to fitness pressure in mate choice

Yes human male compete
- women invest more energy in a child
- men only provide sperm

101

What does it mean to be dimorphism in humans

Males are typically larger and stronger perhaps result of past selection by females

Men and woman have choice in partner

102

Cost benefit analysis of group living

Advantage
- avoid predators, rear offspring, food

Disadvantage
- disputes and disease

103

Altruism is what

Self sacrificing behavior for the good of another member of society

- lower fitness
- common among humans

Kin selection helps explains
- your sister has your genes so you help her out to pass on your genes

104

What is genetic relatedness of siblings

50% related
But not truly related bc independent assortment

105

What is genetic relatedness of first cousins

1/8

106

Genetic relatedness to uncle or aunt

1/4

107

What is inclusive fitness

An individuals personal reproductive success as well as that of his or her relatives and thus to an individuals total genetic contribution to the nest

Ex. Scrub Jay offspring help raise next clutch of eggs

2X fitness

108

What is ecology

Study of interaction if organism with each other and the environment

109

Rate of natural increase is solved how

(Born - dead )/ population

110

What is biotic potential

Highest possible per capita rate of increase for a population

111

What can influence biotic potential

Reproductive potential
Food available
Presence and absence of disease
Presence and absence of predators

112

What are two ways that populations grow

Exponential growth and logistic growth

113

Exponential growth is what

Lag phase
Then exponential growth (large quick growth)

Not realistic

114

What is logistic growth

Lag time
Exponential growth
Stable equilibrium (pop gets limited by carry capacity)

Environmental resistance

115

What is eniviromental resistance

Environment slows growth down leads to carry capacity

- limited amount of resources
Predation
Disease

116

What is the new threat to deer

Chronic eating disease caused by prions

117

Type 1 survivorship curve

Most individuals survive until old age

Ex humans

118

Type 2 survivorship curve

Decrease constantly over time

Song bird

119

Type 3 survivorship curve

Most individuals die early

Ex. Oysters

120

More developed country MDC characteristic

Little slow growth, high fertility, more people live, less offspring

Mostly Europe and America

121

Less developed country LDC

Large constant population growth, low fertility, people die sooner, more offspring

Not yet at demographics transition

Latin America, Asian, Africa

122

What is demographic transition

Extreme pop growth from switching birth rates (a lot) death rate (a lot) to

Zero pop growth birth rate and death rate equal

During transition pop grow quickly

123

What are factors that slow pop growth

Those that are
Density independent

Or

Density dependent

124

What are density independent factors ( do not depend how big pop is)

Abiotic factors
Weather natural disaster

Effect are same for all populations

125

Density dependent factors

Biotic factors
Competition predation parasitism

Effect depend on size of population

126

Interspecific interactions

Relationships with individuals of other species in community and greatly effects pop structure and dynamics

drives adaptive evolution

Ex. Big looks like leaf

127

Competition

Two different species have overlapping niche

Density dependent

128

Ecological niche

Role species plays in a community

129

Competition exclusion principle

No two species can occupy same ecological niche at same time

One species will out compete other

130

Resource partitioning

Seem to have same niche for resource but somehow find way not to compete

131

Predation and herbivory

Occurs when one organisms the predator, feeds on another, the prey

Ex. Lion kill zebra
Deer eat corn
Caterpillars eat leaves

132

Is predation a density dependent factor?

True

133

Predation and herbivory lead to adaptions

Camouflage

And defenses parts
-thorn on plants

134

What is symbiosis and the types

Close interactions bw members of different species

Parasitism- H harmed Other benefit
communalism- host not effect other benefit
mutualism- both benefit

135

Parasitism

Parasite derived nourishment from other organisms

Parasite benefit host harmed

Ex. Aphid on plant
Plant gall

136

Parasitism density dependent factor

Yes more species in a given area can pass the parasite

137

Commensalism

On species benefit other is neither harmed or benefited

Clown fish and sea anemones

138

Mutualism

Both organisms benefit

Degree of benefit not equal

Few are pure

Ex. Plant and pollinators
Coral and dinoflagellates

139

Dinoflagellates leave coral what is it called

Coral bleaching which is due to temperature increase of water

140

In food pyramid or food web what is the order of organism eaten

Producers
Primary consumer
Secondary consumer
Tertiary consumer
Decomposers

141

Energy flow and nutrient cycling

Energy flows through a system (but is lost) about 10%

Chemicals cycle through a system

142

Ecological pyramid: what is represented in each box

Amount of energy in an organism (if eaten not all energy is consumed)

Bottom of pyramid means more abundant organisms and at the top there are less

143

Biogeochemical cycling

Water and carbon cycles

144

What is a reservoir

Long term storage (aquafers)

Fossil fuel
Mineral in rock
Sediment in ocean

145

Exchange pool is what

Where you get quickly stored resources and exchange for that

Atmosphere
Soil
Water

146

Carbon cycle is what

Plant and algae take up inorganic carbon
Carbon incorporated into food
Cell respiration return carbon to atmosphere

Atmosphere is the exchange pool

147

Co2 iin atmosphere is dissolved in water

It is exchange pool

148

What put carbon in exchange pool

Decay and respiration put it in
Photosynthesis takes it out

Human: combustion and deforestation put more co2 in atmosphere

149

Carbon cycle aquatic

Co2 exchange is indirect

Some is free in water
Co2 from air comes into contact with water and for bicorbinate. Ions

PH of ocean go down (acidification)