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Flashcards in POM L2 Deck (33):
1

Project Definition (What is it consist of? )

A project consists of (SARD)
• A start date and duration
• A set of deliverables to a client • A schedule
• All technical and managerial activities required to produce and deliver the deliverables
• Resources consumed by the activities

2

Modeling a project: Dynamic model

1. Definition (do/define scope)
2.Start (do/Assign Tasks)
3.Steady state (do/develop state)
4.Termination (do/deliver system)

3

Modeling a project: Dynamic model

1. Definition (do/define scope)
2.Start (do/Assign Tasks)
3.Steady state (do/develop system)
4.Termination (do/deliver system)

4

Project as a class

has Attributes:
- Start Date
- Duration

has Methods:
- Define Scope()
- Assign Tasks()
- Develop System()
-Deliver System()

5

Project Manager as a class

has Methods:
- Administer Resources()
- Maintain Accountability()
- Meet Project Goals()

6

Role

- defines a set of responsibilities (a duty or a task)

7

Roles: System Architect

System architect
• Decompose the system into subsystems
• Choose a software architectural style
• Select the system integration strategy

8

Role: Minute taker

Minute taker
• Record the meeting
• Identify action items and issues
• Distributed the minutes to the participants and other stakeholders

9

Role

- defines a set of responsibilities (a duty or a task)

Responsibilities are assigned to toles, roles are assigned to people and people are assigned to teams.

10

Role assignments to people

- One-to-Oe
- Many-to-Few (danger of overcommitment)
- Many-to-"Too-Many" (Some people don't have significant roles)

11

Problems in Role Assignments

- Incompetence: The wrong person fills the wrong role
- Useless role: The role exists only to minimize damage
control
- Increase of Bureaucracy: The role swells unnecessarily simply because it can.

12

Bad role assignments

#Incompetence => Peter Principle:
“Employees who perform their roles in a hierarchy with competence are promoted to a higher level until they reach a level where they are no longer competent. There they remain forever”
-Solution: It makes little sense to take your most brilliant engineer
and have him or her manage people and budgets
#Useless role => Dilbert's Law
“promote least- competent employees to management (generally middle management), to limit damage they are capable of doing”
-solutions: Put individuals to work in their core competencies.
#Increased Bureaucracy => Parkinson's Law
„Work expands to fill the time available for its completion“
- Dont wait for the last minute

13

Task

A task describes the smallest amount of work monitored (tracked) by the project manager (Typically 3-10 working days effort).

Tasks are associated with a:
- Role
- Work Package
- Work Product
- Start date
- Duration

14

Task

A task describes the smallest amount of work monitored (tracked) by the project manager (Typically 3-10 working days effort).

Tasks are associated with a:
- Role
- Work Package
- Work Product
- Start date
- Duration
- Required resources

If a task size is too large, the task should be renamed into an activity, decomposed into smaller task sizes that allow monitoring.

15

Activity

• An activity is a major unit of work • Culminates in a project milestone
• A project milestone is a scheduled event used to visualize/measure progress
• A project milestone is visible to the customer
• A project milestone usually produces a baseline
• Activities can also have internal checkpoints
• These are not externally visible to the customer
• Precedence relations often exist among activities

16

Unit of Work

A task or an activity that contains other tasks and lower-level activities

17

Project Function

Project Function: An activity that spans the entire duration of a software project. Examples of project functions include project management, configuration management, quality assurance, and verification and validation.

18

Project Function

Project Function: An activity that spans the entire duration of a software project. Examples of project functions include project management, configuration management, quality assurance, and verification and validation.

Examples of Project Functions:
- Project management
- Documentation
- Configuration Management
- Testing

Sometimes project functions are also called cross-development processes or Integral processes.

19

Name 3 Meeting roles !

#Minute taker : Record the meeting and identify actions
#Time Keeper: Keep track of time
#Primary facilitator: Organize the meeting and guide the execution

20

What types of role do exist ? (Role Taxonomy )

(CoDeMaLi)
#Developer
#Manager
#Liaison (Connector)
#Consultant

21

What is a work package ?

A task or activity is specified by a work package which
contains:
• Description of work to be done
• Preconditions for starting, duration, required resources
• Work products to be produced, acceptance criteria for it
• Risks involved
• A work package must have completion criteria

22

Explain the Functional Organization (ad/disadv.) !

#In a functional organization people are grouped into
departments, each of which addresses an activity (Analysis, design,
integration, testing, delivery)
#Projects are pipelined through the departments
+Members of a department have a good understanding of the functional area they support
-High chance for overlap or duplication of work among
departments.

23

Explain Project-based Organization !

#• In a project-based organization people are assigned to a project, each of which has a problem to be solved in a
certain time within a given budget
# Teams are assembled for a project when it is created
• Each project has a project manager
+Very responsive to new requirements
-Teams cannot be assembled rapidly

24

What are differences btw Flat Staffing vs Gradual Staffing ?

# Gradual Staffing:
• The organization is gradually ramped up by hiring people as needed
# Flat Staffing:
• All the participants are assigned at the start of a project

25

When to use a Project-based Organization ?

• Project has high degree of uncertainty
• Open communication is needed among participants
• Requirements are expected to change during the project
• New technology that could effect the outcome may appear
during the project.

26

Explain the matrix Organization !

In a matrix organization, people from different departments of
a functional organization are assigned to work on one or more
projects
+ Teams for projects can be assembled rapidly from the
departments
+Expertise can be applied to different projects as needed
-Team members are often not familiar with each other
- “Double-boss problem”:

27

What is “Double-boss problem”

When Team members must respond to two
different bosses with different focus:
• Focus of the manager of the department
• Focus of the project manager

28

What is Project Organization Structure and name 3 relationships !

#A project organization defines the structure among the
members (participants) of a project in terms of
relationships
1)Decision structure : It models the control flow: Who decides what?
2) Reporting structure: Who reports their status to whom?
3) Communication structure : It models the information flow: Who facilitates
communication with whom?
#Org-chart usually visualize these 3 structures in one graph with a single hierarchical relationship

29

What are the communication skill for software project manager ?

• Collaboration: Negotiate requirements with the client and with
members from your team and other teams
• Presentation: Present a major part of the system during a review
• Technical writing: Write part of the proposal, part of the project
documentation
• Management. Facilitate a team meeting, find compromises, negotiate
between conflicting demands

30

What are the 2 communication events ?

Planed communication,
Event-driven communication

31

What is Communication mechanism:

#Tool or procedure that can be used to deal with a communication event
#Synchronous mechanism: Tool requires communication
partners to be available at the same time
• Asynchronous: Tool does not require communication
partners to communicate at the same time.

32

Name some communication events !

#problem definition
#client review
#walk trough
#project review
#inspection

33

Name examples for communication mechanism(both synchronos and asynchronos)

#Synchronous :
-Informal meeting
-Formal meeting
#Asynchronous
-Emails
-Forums