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Flashcards in Population Ecology Deck (73)
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1
Q

ecology

A

study of how living organisms and the physical environment interact

2
Q

Biotic factor

A

interactions among organisms

3
Q

Abiotic factors-

A

interactions between organisms and the non living environment

4
Q

examples of abiotic factors

A

Precipitation
Temperature
Wind

5
Q

Population

A

group of individuals of same species living in

the same area

6
Q

Community

A

groups of populations of diff species living in same area

7
Q

Ecosystem

A

interrelations between organisms in a community and

their physical environment

8
Q

Biosphere

A

all regions of the earth that contain living things

9
Q

habitat

A

place where an organism lives (Includes organisms as well as physical/ chemical characteristics)

10
Q

Niche

A

all biotic and abiotic resources in an environment
used by an organism–When an organism is in a niche, certain resources are consumed
or certain qualities of environment are changed by the organism

11
Q

Population ecology considers….

A

considers both the

number of individuals of a species and dynamics of population

12
Q

Population size is measured by ….

A

population density

13
Q

population density

A
# of individuals of a
species per unit of area or volume (varies from season to season)
14
Q

delta

A

change in

15
Q

rMax

A

ideal r/max per capita growth rate of population

16
Q

rate equation

A

dY/dT

17
Q

Population growth

A

dN/dt=B-D

18
Q

exponential growth

A

dN/dt=rMaxNd

19
Q

logistic growth

A

dN/dt=rMaxN((k-N)/k)

20
Q

dY

A

amount of change

21
Q

t

A

time

22
Q

B

A

birth rate

23
Q

D

A

death rate

24
Q

N

A

population size

25
Q

K

A

carrying capacity

26
Q

Increase in pop size

A

births and immigration

27
Q

decrease in pop size

A

deaths and emigration

28
Q

Birth rate, or B

A

(“natality”)- average per capita (rates per individual)

birth rate –b/N

29
Q

Death rate, or D

A

(“mortality”)- average per capita death rate–d/N

30
Q

r expressed in

A

decimal

31
Q

r

A

B-D

32
Q

If B is greater than D

A

r is positive and the population is increasing

33
Q

If B is less than D

A

r is negative and the population is decreasing

34
Q

When B and D are equal

A

r is 0 and the population is constant

35
Q

What is it called when the population is constant?

A

0 population growth

36
Q

intrinsic rate of increase (rmax)

A

The maximum rate at which a population of a given species could increase
under ideal conditions (when resources are abundant and population density
is low)

37
Q

large v small species intrinsic rate

A

large-Smaller, small-larger (bacteria),

38
Q

Under optimal conditions, the reproductive rate of a population would have
….

A

exponential growth (j shaped curve)

39
Q

why can’t organisms reproduce indefinitely at their intrinsic rate of
increase?

A

environment sets limits

40
Q

ex of environmental limits

A

food, water, shelter, competition

41
Q

Over time, rate of population growth may decrease to nearly zero-
population levels out when
….

A

environmental limits reached

42
Q

Carrying capacity (K)

A

represents the largest population that can be
maintained for an indefinite period by a
particular environment

43
Q

When does K change?

A

in response to environmental changes- ex- if there is a drought, carrying capacity for animals in the area decrease; if abundance of food, it’ll increase

44
Q

logistic population growth

A

realized population growth–Curve of graph is an S-curve- When N is small, rate of population growth higher; As N reaches K, growth rate declines

45
Q

when is pop growth rate highest

A

halfK?

46
Q

population crash

A

abrupt decline

47
Q

population cycles at k

A

Populations rarely stabilize at K- may temporarily rise above K, then drop down to or below K

48
Q

what happens if a population overshoots K

A

population crash

49
Q

Density-dependent factors

A

change in population density alters how an

environmental factor affects population

50
Q

ex of density dependent factor

A

predation, disease, competition

51
Q

which factor has less of an effect on a small population as compared to a large one

A

density dependent factor

52
Q

Density-independent factors

A

environmental factors, usually abiotic, that
affect the size of population-
irrespective of density

53
Q

ex of DI factors

A

random weather events such as frost, blizzard, hurricane

54
Q

Life history traits

A

ways in which a species reproduces and survives

55
Q

r- selected species-

A

traits that contribute to high population growth rate, reproduce quickly at their r

56
Q

traits of r selected species

A

Small body size, short life span, no parental care

57
Q

two extremes of life history traits

A

r selected and k selected

58
Q

nickname r selected species

A

Called opportunist species- quickly inhabit an area, reproduce, die

59
Q

Ex r selected species

A

Ex- weeds, mosquitoes

60
Q

K- selected species-

A

traits that allow the population to function best at the K

61
Q

traits of k selected species

A

Long life spans with slow development, late reproduction, large
body size, low reproductive rate, parental care
Found in constant stable environments

62
Q

ex k selected species

A

humans, redwood trees, owls

63
Q

Life tables-

A

show mortality and survival data of a population at different
times during their lifetime

64
Q

Type I + ex

A

young have high probability of surviving, but with increasing
age, probability of surviving
decreases more rapidly ex-humans

65
Q

Type II + ex

A

probability of death is equally likely across all age groups,
resulting in linear decline of survivorship
Ex- some lizards and rodents

66
Q

Type III + ex

A

probability of mortality is highest early in life, and
probability of survival increases with increasing ages
Oysters- have free swimming larvae that are easily eaten

67
Q

human population prediction, current

A

currently J with a slight dip for the plague –Even though population is increasing, the world growth rate is slowly
declining- predicted that the point of zero population growth (r= 0) will
occur toward the end of the 21st century

68
Q

Age structure

A

number and proportion of people at each age in a

population

69
Q

Age structure diagram

A

shows number of males and females at each

age, from birth to death

70
Q

countries w high birth rate diagrams

A

Countries with high birth rates have pyramid-shaped diagram,
meaning that the probability of
future growth is great

71
Q

stable population diagrams

A

tiers of equal width

72
Q

shrinking population diagram

A

Shrinking population has prereproductive group smaller than

postreproductive group

73
Q

do all countries have same growth rate

A

no