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Flashcards in Positive Reinforcement Deck (16):
1

What is the difference between operant and classical conditioning?

Operant is distinct from classical conditioning as the behaviour has an impact on consequences.

Outcome is contingent on response being made.

2

Thorndike's Law of Effect

If an animal responds in a certain way and something good happens as a result they are more likely to do it again.

3

Reinforcement (Rft)

Relation between some event (a reinforcer) and a preceding response increases he strength of the response.

Key: It is defined by its observed effect on behaviour and NOT by its subjective qualities

4

Who came up with reinforcement and punishment principles?

Skinner

5

Magazine approach

Animal poking his nose and seeing if there is food

6

Positive reinforcement

The process of encouraging a pattern of behaviour by offering reward when the behaviour is exhibited.

7

Secondary Reinforcement

A situation where in a stimulus reinforces a behavior after being previously associated with a primary reinforcer or a stimulus that satisfies basic survival instinct such as food, drinks, and clothing.

8

Strong temporal contiguity

A short period of time between R and Rft

9

Factors affecting instrumental conditioning

1. Temporal Contiguity
2. Contingency

10

How are temporal contiguity and contingency differ?

Contingency refers more to a statistical relationship between things

11

An example of strong contingency

The animal is receiving food when the do the right thing. GO OVER AGAIN

12

Shaping

Trying to encourage behaviour by rewarding it when it happens.

13

Place training

Rewarding a dog for walking to the correct place with the intention that overtime he can do it on his own.

14

3 Principles of Shaping

1. close temporal contiguity between R and Rft
2. Avoid giving spurious Rfts. This degrades contingency
3. Avoid reinforcing the wrong behaviour - development of superstitious behaviour

15

Response chaining

involves shaping a sequence of responses

16

Fixed Ratio

Means reinforcement is delivered once every 5 responses