Flashcards in Positive Reinforcement Deck (16):
What is the difference between operant and classical conditioning?
Operant is distinct from classical conditioning as the behaviour has an impact on consequences.
Outcome is contingent on response being made.
Thorndike's Law of Effect
If an animal responds in a certain way and something good happens as a result they are more likely to do it again.
Relation between some event (a reinforcer) and a preceding response increases he strength of the response.
Key: It is defined by its observed effect on behaviour and NOT by its subjective qualities
Who came up with reinforcement and punishment principles?
Animal poking his nose and seeing if there is food
The process of encouraging a pattern of behaviour by offering reward when the behaviour is exhibited.
A situation where in a stimulus reinforces a behavior after being previously associated with a primary reinforcer or a stimulus that satisfies basic survival instinct such as food, drinks, and clothing.
Strong temporal contiguity
A short period of time between R and Rft
Factors affecting instrumental conditioning
1. Temporal Contiguity
How are temporal contiguity and contingency differ?
Contingency refers more to a statistical relationship between things
An example of strong contingency
The animal is receiving food when the do the right thing. GO OVER AGAIN
Trying to encourage behaviour by rewarding it when it happens.
Rewarding a dog for walking to the correct place with the intention that overtime he can do it on his own.
3 Principles of Shaping
1. close temporal contiguity between R and Rft
2. Avoid giving spurious Rfts. This degrades contingency
3. Avoid reinforcing the wrong behaviour - development of superstitious behaviour
involves shaping a sequence of responses