Flashcards in Analysis of Behaviour Deck (12):
What did early behavioural research focus on?
Observable causes of behaviour. The contingencies between stimuli and responses that conditioned behaviour.
What is classical conditioning?
Occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone. US is response independent.
Unconditioned stimulus (US)
Stimulus with inherent biological importance to animal e.g food
Unconditioned response (UR)
Response automatically elicited by US (e.g consumption or salivation)
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
Initially neutral cue (e.g. sound) that acquires significance through conditioning
Conditioned Response (CR)
Response elicited by CS following conditioning
Reinforcement or punishment are used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behaviour will occur again in the future. Your actions lead to consequences. US is response dependent.
Tripartite contingency - the ABC
- Antecedent: The stimulus controlling behaviour
- The discriminative stimuli (Sd)
- Behaviour: what is the response being reinforced (operant)
- Consequence: what is the immediate outcome of behaviour
(The reinforcing stimulus Sr)
Stimulus - response - reinforcement
Different types of reinforcement
1. Positive - add appetitive stimulus following correct behaviour
2. Negative - absence of a stimulus
a) Escape - removes a stimulus
b) Active Avoidance - prevents a stimulus (studying to avoid getting a bad grade)
Different types of punishment
1. Positive - presence of a noxious stimulus following behaviour
2. Negative - Remove appetative stimulus following behaviour
What do S, R, O, S* mean?
Biologically significant stimulus