Analysis of Behaviour Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Analysis of Behaviour Deck (12):
1

What did early behavioural research focus on?

Observable causes of behaviour. The contingencies between stimuli and responses that conditioned behaviour.

2

What is classical conditioning?

Occurs when two stimuli are repeatedly paired: a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone. US is response independent.

3

Unconditioned stimulus (US)

Stimulus with inherent biological importance to animal e.g food

4

Unconditioned response (UR)

Response automatically elicited by US (e.g consumption or salivation)

5

Conditioned Stimulus (CS)

Initially neutral cue (e.g. sound) that acquires significance through conditioning

6

Conditioned Response (CR)

Response elicited by CS following conditioning

7

Instrumental Learning

Reinforcement or punishment are used to either increase or decrease the probability that a behaviour will occur again in the future. Your actions lead to consequences. US is response dependent.

8

Tripartite contingency - the ABC

- Antecedent: The stimulus controlling behaviour
- The discriminative stimuli (Sd)

- Behaviour: what is the response being reinforced (operant)
- Consequence: what is the immediate outcome of behaviour
(The reinforcing stimulus Sr)

Stimulus - response - reinforcement

9

Different types of reinforcement

1. Positive - add appetitive stimulus following correct behaviour
2. Negative - absence of a stimulus
a) Escape - removes a stimulus
b) Active Avoidance - prevents a stimulus (studying to avoid getting a bad grade)

10

Different types of punishment

1. Positive - presence of a noxious stimulus following behaviour
2. Negative - Remove appetative stimulus following behaviour

11

What do S, R, O, S* mean?

Stimulus
Response
Outcome
Biologically significant stimulus

12

What does knowing the causes of behaviour allow you to do?

1 To be able to change your own behaviour
2 To be able to change another's behaviour
3 To recognise when someone is trying to change your behaviour