Flashcards in Posterior Compartment of the Leg Deck (29)
The popliteal fossa is bounded by which muscles?
• Semitendinosus/semimembranosus (superomedially)
• Biceps femoris (superolaterally)
• Medial and lateral heads of gastrocnemius (inferiorly)
The small saphenous vein ends in the _____1_____ by passing through the _____2_______ in the median plane of the limb to drain into the ________3________
1) popliteal fossa
2) deep popliteal fascia
3) popliteal vein
What does the popliteal fossa contain?
The popliteal fossa contains a major neurovascular bundle: in the median plane of the fossa, from superficial to deep, lie the tibial nerve (from the sciatic nerve), the popliteal vein (continuation of the posterior tibial vein(s)) and popliteal artery (continuation of the femoral artery). Popliteal lymph nodes are located along the popliteal vein in the fossa.
What are where does the sciatic nerve commonly divide?
at the superior apex of the fossa into tibial nerve and common fibular nerve (if that division has not already taken place within the gluteal region or posterior compartment of thigh).
The _______nerves are located within the region of the popliteal fossa (mainly in superficial fascia) and supply skin and fascia on the _________ aspect of the leg and foot
The __________ is vulnerable to compression injury against the neck of the fibula
common fibular nerve
What are the superficial muscles of the posterior leg?
gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris.
What are the deep muscles of the posterior leg?
popliteus, flexor hallucis longus (FHL), flexor digitorum longus (FDL) and tibialis posterior
Where do all superficial muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg distally attach?
The posterior surface of the calcaneus by the calcanea tendon
What nerve innervates all the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg?
The tibial nerve
Gastrocenemius has two ____ and two ______
heads and bellies medial and lateral
Proximal and distal attachments of gastrocnemius? Action?
Proximal: lateral head attach to lateral aspect of the condyle of the femur and medial head attach to the medial condyle of the femur
Distal: posterior surface of the calcaneus via the calcanea tendon
Action: weak knee flexor and powerful ankle plantar-flexor
Proximal and distal attachments of soleus? Action?
Proximal: neck of fibula and soleal line of fibula
Distal: Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcanea tendon
Action: Plantarflexes ankle
The plantaris muscle is not _________
necessary and not everyone has it
Proximal and distal attachments of plantaris? Action?
Proximal: Inferior end of lateral supracondylar line of femur; oblique popliteal ligament
Distal: Posterior surface of calcaneus via calcaneal tendon
The popliteal artery divides immediately distal to the _____1______ into the _______2___________. The fibular artery is a branch of the ______3_______.
1) popliteal fossa
2) anterior and posterior tibial arteries
3) posterior tibial artery
The anterior tibial artery pierces the ____________
interosseous membrane to supply the anterior compartment of the leg.
The_______1________ supplies the posterior compartment. It runs with the tibial nerve, mainly between the superficial and deep muscles. The posterior tibial artery leaves the compartment by passing _____________2___________ In the foot, the posterior tibial artery terminates by dividing into the __________3___________
1) posterior tibial artery
2) posterior to the medial malleolus (where the posterior tibial pulse is taken) and deep to the flexor retinaculum.
3) medial and lateral planter arteries.
The fibular artery branches from the _______1________in the proximal half of the compartment.
It descends in the compartment on the posterior intermuscular septum and sends perforating branches through the septum to supply the _____2______ compartment of the leg.
1) posterior tibial artery
Why is the sciatic nerve so clinically important?
Extensive distribution- The sciatic nerve supplies the muscles in the posterior compartment of thigh and, via its divisions, also supplies the muscles in all the compartments of the leg and the intrinsic muscles of the foot.
Action of deep group of the posterior compartment of the leg?
Flexors of toe and plantarflexors of the ankle
Popliteus proximal and distal attachments?
Proximal: lateral condyle of femur
Distal: Posterior surface of tibia superior to soleal line
Flexor hallucis longus proximal and distal attachments?
Proximal: posterior surface of fibula and inferior part of interseossus membrane
Distal: base of distal phalanx of great toe
Flexor digitorum longus proximal and distal attachments?
Proximal: posterior surface of tibia below the soleal line
Distal: Bases of distal phalanges of lateral four digits.
Tibialis Posterior proximal and distal attachments?
Proximal: interosseous membrane, posterior tibia and posterior fibula
Distal: Tarsal bones
Where do all deep muscles of posterior leg compartment attach to?
tibia (inferior to soleal line), mid-shaft of the fibula and the interosseous membrane
Calcaneal tendon is also known as?
Tendons of gastrocnemius and soleus together
What is thickest and strongest tendon in the body? What is it formed from?