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MSK Anatomy > The Foot > Flashcards

Flashcards in The Foot Deck (21)
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1

Describe Interphalangeal joints?

Synovial hinge joints – flexion and extension of toes

2

Describe the mid tarsal joints?

2 joints: calcaneocuboid & talocalcaneonavicular
- These are synovial joints at which the movements are mainly inversion (produced by tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior working together/tibial & deep fibular nerves) and eversion (produced by the fibularis muscles/both fibular nerves).

3

Describe the mid tarsal joints?

2 joints: calcaneocuboid & talocalcaneonavicular
These are synovial joints at which the movements are mainly inversion (produced by tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior working together/tibial & deep fibular nerves) and eversion (produced by the fibularis muscles/both fibular nerves).

4

Describe the tarsometatarsal joints?

Between the cuneiforms/cuboid proximally & the metatarsals

5

Describe the metatarsalphalangeal joints?

Also synovial joints allowing flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and circumduction of the digits (toes)

6

What do arches of the foot provide?

These provide shock absorption, “push-off” spring in function and increased weight-bearing capacity by weight redistribution across the whole foot.

7

What are arches of the feet supported by?

The arches are supported by the plantar aponeurosis (thickened central area of the plantar fascia, the deep fascia of the sole of the foot – also protects against puncture wounds) and plantar ligaments.

8

Describe the medial longitudinal arch?

Composed of the bones of the medial aspect of the foot (calcaneus, talus, navicular, 3 cuneiforms and metatarsals 1-3). The arch is supported by the flexor hallucis longus and by the attachments of tibialis anterior

9

Describe the lateral longitudinal arch?

A lower and less important arch than the medial longitudinal formed by the calcaneus, cuboid and metatarsals 4 & 5. Usually weight bearing on standing

10

Describe the transverse arch?

Consists of the cuboid, cuneiforms and the bases of all 5 metatarsals. Also supported by fibularis longus, as well as tibialis posterior.

11

What is meant by intrinsic muscles of the foot?

The intrinsic muscles attach proximally and distally within the foot, as opposed to attaching proximally within the leg and then inserting into the foot.

12

Describe the intrinsic muscles of the foot?

The sole/interosseous muscles mainly produce flexion (sole muscles) and abduction/adduction (interossei) of the toes. The 2 dorsal muscles are the short extensors of the toes.

13

The dorsalis pedis artery is ______1________
The pulse is taken ___________2__________ Branches to give the _____3____ artery on the dorsum of the foot

1) Branch of anterior tibial artery
2) lateral to extensor hallucis longus tendon
3) arcuate

14

The medial and lateral plantar arteries are branches of _______1_______ Both contribute to the _____2_______
From the deep planter arch and the arcuate artery arise ______3______ which branch into _______4_______

1) posterior tibial artery
2) deep plantar arch
3) metatarsal arteries
4) digital arteries (as in the hand, 4 digital arteries per toe)

15

Describe superficial veins of the foot?

Dorsal venous arch giving rise to great (medially) and small (laterally) saphenous veins

16

The deep veins of the foot follow the arteries of the foot and drain into ......

anterior and posterior tibial and the fibular veins (often small groups of veins accompanying the arteries rather than substantial, single, named vessels) that join to form the popliteal vein

17

Joining of what three veins forms the popliteal?

Anterior tibial, posterior tibial and fibular veins

18

Lymphatic drainage of the foot?

Lymphatic vessels accompany the great and small saphenous veins

19

What is the motor nerve to the foot?

Tibial nerve

20

Sensory nerve supply to the dorsum of the foot?

Superficial fibular nerve, deep fibular nerve and saphenous nerve

21

Sensory nerve supply to the plantar surface of the foot?

Tibial, sural and saphenous nerve