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Yr2 Control - Term 2 and 3 > Posture and Balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Posture and Balance Deck (47)
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1

What systems contribute to posture and balance? (3)

-Vestibular system
-Visual system
-Somatosensory system (proprioception)

2

What are the structural features of the vestibular system involved in posture and balance? (2)

-Semicircular canals (x3)
-Vestibule (contains utricle and saccule)

3

What nerve is involved with balance in the vestibular system?

Vestibular branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII).

4

What nerves is the vestibular branch composed of? (3)

-Utricular nerve
-Saccular nerve
-Ampullary nerve

5

How many degrees of freedom are there in vestibular navigation?

6 degrees of freedom.
-3 translational, 3 rotational

6

What are the translation degrees of freedom? (3)

X, y and z.

7

What is translational motion and linear acceleration detected by?

Utricle and saccule.

8

What are the rotational degrees of freedom? (3)

-Roll (around x)
-Pitch (around y)
-Yaw (around z)

9

What is rotational motion and angular acceleration detected by?

Semicircular canals.

10

What are the main sensory detectors of the utricle and saccule?

Maculae.

11

What does the macula contain?

Matrix of cells surrounding hair cells innervated by utricular and saccular nerves.

12

What structures do the hair cells contain that provide information about movement?

-Multiple cilia
-1 kinocilium

13

What do the cilia penetrate into?

The otolithic membrane.
-gelatinous calcium carbonate crystals

14

What is the effect of bending of the cilia and kinocilium?

Bending of cilia towards kinocilium >> increased firing in nerve >> DEPOLARISATION.
Bending of cilia away from kinocilium >> decreased firing in nerve >> HYPERPOLARISATION.

15

What sort of ion channels do hair cells contain?

K+ channels.
-mechanoreceptors

16

What happens when the K+ channels are distorted?

K+ channels become activated
>> activation of VG Ca channels
>> glutamate release.

17

What is the macula activated by?

Head tilting.

18

What does the macula provide information about? (2)

-Static equilibrium
-Dynamic equilibrium

19

What is static equilibrium?

Position of head relative to horizontal.
-sensitivity

20

What is dynamic equilibrium?

Linear acceleration / deceleration.

21

What planes are the maculae orientated in?

UTRICLE – horizontal.
SACCULE – vertical.

Opposing directions >> better sensitivity.

22

What are the utricle and saccule also known as collectively?

Otolith organs.

23

What do the otolith organs provide information about? (3)

-Head tilting
-Gravity
-Linear acceleration

24

What are the main functional features of the semicircular canals?

-Main sensory structure is localised to AMPULLA
-Canal on both sides of head work in pairs

25

What do the semicircular canals provide information about? (2)

-Rotational movements
-Angular acceleration

26

What are the semicircular canals filled with?

Endolymph.

27

What is an ampulla?

Bulge at base of semicircular canal.
-location of main sensory structures

28

What is a cupula?

Gelatinous membrane in ampulla containing sensory processes.
-hair cells and cilia
-forms barrier against endolymph flow

29

What nerve innervate hair cells in the semicircular canals?

Ampullary nerve.
-from CNVIII

30

How does head rotation lead to nerve impulses?

Head rotation
>> endolymph inertia (lags behind)
>> cupula bends in opposite direction to rotation
>> distortion of cilia
>> excites / inhibits sensory nerves.