Workbook - Spinal cord and spinal nerves Flashcards Preview

Yr2 Control - Term 2 and 3 > Workbook - Spinal cord and spinal nerves > Flashcards

Flashcards in Workbook - Spinal cord and spinal nerves Deck (54)
Loading flashcards...
1

What are the 3 layers of meninges surrounding the spinal cord?

-Dura mater
-Arachnoid mater
-Pia mater

2

How many layers does the dura mater consist of in the spinal cord?

One.

3

What are the denticulate ligaments?

Expansions of pia mater in cervical and thoracic regions.
-provide stability for the spinal cord against movement

4

What is the functional difference between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots?

Dorsal roots - sensory.
Ventral roots - motor.

5

Where do the dorsal and ventral nerve roots unite to form the spinal nerves?

Within the intervertebral foramen.

6

What do dorsal rami of the spinal nerves supply?

Intrinsic back muscles (epaxial) and a small strip of skin.

7

What do the ventral rami of the spinal nerves supply?

Most other skeletal muscles (hypaxial), limbs, trunk and skin.

8

Where is the epidural space located?

Between the dura mater and bone of the vertebral canal.

9

What is the filum terminale?

A delicate strand of fibrous tissue extending from the conus medullaris to the coccyx.
-pia mater modification

10

What is the conus medullaris?

Cone-shaped end of the spinal cord.
-around L1-2

11

Which spinal nerves does the cauda equina consist of?

-L2-5
-S1-5
-Co

12

What does the cauda equina descend through?

Lumbar cistern.

13

What is the lumbar cistern?

Enlargement of the subarachnoid space between the conus medullaris (~L2) and the inferior end of subarachnoid space and dura mater (~S2).

14

What does the lumbar cistern contain?

-Cauda equina
-Filum terminale
-CSF

15

What is the lumbar cistern used for clinically?

-Lumbar puncture
-Spinal anaesthesia

16

Where does the spinal cord terminate in the foetus?

Coccyx.

17

Where does the spinal cord terminate in newborns (neonates)?

~L3.

18

Where does the spinal cord terminate in adults?

~L1-2.

19

Where does the subarachnoid space terminate inferiorly?

Lower S2.

20

Where does the subarachnoid space terminate superiorly?

Cranial cavity.

21

What does the subarachnoid space contain?

CSF.

22

What are the diagnostic purposes of obtaining CSF samples?

-Meningitis
-Subarachnoid haemorrhages
-Guillain-Barre syndrome

23

Where is a needle normally inserted for lumbar puncture?

In the midline, between vertebrae L3/L4.

24

What surface landmarks are used to identify the site of lumbar puncture (between L3/L4)?

Horizontal line between the superior border of the posterior iliac crests >> L4 spinous process.

25

What are the layers pierced by a lumbar puncture needle?

-Skin
-Fascia/subcutaneous fat
-Ligaments
-Epidural space
-Dura mater
-Arachnoid mater

26

What are the signs and symptoms of L5/S1 nerve root compression?

-Leg pain (sciatica)
-Numb/weak legs
-Lower back pain
-Cauda equina syndrome

27

What are the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve?

L4-S3.

28

What is cauda equina syndrome?

Compression/damage to the cauda equina.
>> lower back pain, leg pain/weakness, urinary incontinence

29

Which section of the spinal cord has the most white matter?

Cervical.
-all the fibres to the body travel here

30

What is the white matter of the spinal cord?

Paler tissue around the outside.
-consists of mainly nerve fibres and there myelin sheaths