Flashcards in Workbook - Spinal cord and spinal nerves Deck (54)
What are the 3 layers of meninges surrounding the spinal cord?
How many layers does the dura mater consist of in the spinal cord?
What are the denticulate ligaments?
Expansions of pia mater in cervical and thoracic regions.
-provide stability for the spinal cord against movement
What is the functional difference between the dorsal and ventral nerve roots?
Dorsal roots - sensory.
Ventral roots - motor.
Where do the dorsal and ventral nerve roots unite to form the spinal nerves?
Within the intervertebral foramen.
What do dorsal rami of the spinal nerves supply?
Intrinsic back muscles (epaxial) and a small strip of skin.
What do the ventral rami of the spinal nerves supply?
Most other skeletal muscles (hypaxial), limbs, trunk and skin.
Where is the epidural space located?
Between the dura mater and bone of the vertebral canal.
What is the filum terminale?
A delicate strand of fibrous tissue extending from the conus medullaris to the coccyx.
-pia mater modification
What is the conus medullaris?
Cone-shaped end of the spinal cord.
Which spinal nerves does the cauda equina consist of?
What does the cauda equina descend through?
What is the lumbar cistern?
Enlargement of the subarachnoid space between the conus medullaris (~L2) and the inferior end of subarachnoid space and dura mater (~S2).
What does the lumbar cistern contain?
What is the lumbar cistern used for clinically?
Where does the spinal cord terminate in the foetus?
Where does the spinal cord terminate in newborns (neonates)?
Where does the spinal cord terminate in adults?
Where does the subarachnoid space terminate inferiorly?
Where does the subarachnoid space terminate superiorly?
What does the subarachnoid space contain?
What are the diagnostic purposes of obtaining CSF samples?
Where is a needle normally inserted for lumbar puncture?
In the midline, between vertebrae L3/L4.
What surface landmarks are used to identify the site of lumbar puncture (between L3/L4)?
Horizontal line between the superior border of the posterior iliac crests >> L4 spinous process.
What are the layers pierced by a lumbar puncture needle?
What are the signs and symptoms of L5/S1 nerve root compression?
-Leg pain (sciatica)
-Lower back pain
-Cauda equina syndrome
What are the nerve roots of the sciatic nerve?
What is cauda equina syndrome?
Compression/damage to the cauda equina.
>> lower back pain, leg pain/weakness, urinary incontinence
Which section of the spinal cord has the most white matter?
-all the fibres to the body travel here