What is meningitis an inflammation of?
Membranes covering CNS
How many women died from unsafe abortions in 2000?
How can health exist in the face of adversity?
If people are connected, understand and manage and make sense of circumstances
What causes red spots on the skin caused by meningitis?
Bleeding into the dermis
What is housing in terms of health?
A social determinant
What percentage of those with HIV reside in Sub-Saharan Africa?
What does surveillance medicine focus on?
Identifying biopsychosocial risk factors for disease
How have rates of admissions and lengths of stay changed since the 1940s?
Admissions increased, lengths of stay decreased
Where in the hospital have hospital beds increased in the past 30 years?
In day surgery
What can challenge the boundaries of medical law?
How can the data from qualitative studies be generalised?
By use of concepts
What is the most feared consequence of meningococcal septicaemia?
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
What is the nocebo effect?
Experiencing side effects to medically inert treatment
What gives rights based morality meaning?
How many hospital beds does the UK have?
How many cervical vertebrae do most mammals have?
What is treating someone’s best interests?
Doing what they would have wanted if they had capacity to make the decision
What is the likelihood that the true mean will lie ±2 standard errors from the sample mean?
Why are lengths of stay often shorter in the US than the UK?
More use of intermediate care services
What is the widest interpretation of good health?
Encompassing our total planet diversity
What can standard error be used to determine?
The likely population distribution
What do developmental psychologists do?
Work to understand problems with social and cognitive functioning in old age
What are medically unexplained symtpoms correlated with?
What do cohort studies look at?
Used to prospectively investigate risk factors for a disease
What are cross-sectional studies used for?
Studying the prevalence of a disease
What does qualitative research look at?
How social reality is subjectively perceived
Where is health worst?
In countries with greater income inequality
What happens at phase 0 of drug trials?
Basic scientific discovery
What has happened to the number of hospital beds since 1985?
What are patients over 75 waiting for discharge from acute care waiting for?
What is ideal speech according to communication theory?
Where people are free to say whatever they want
How many people report having no symptoms over a 2 week period?
Which genes cause ectopic ribs?
How does the Lancet define good health?
Ability to adapt to ones enviroment
What kind of questionnaire would be used to determine the prevalence of adherence to a new drug?
What is a total institution?
One where all needs of a large number of people are catered for over long periods of time
What is an issue for focus groups?
What do fossil records reveal about our evolution?
That we evolved from quadrupets
What was the overall effect of asylums on health?
Negative since patients had little opportunity for indvidual decision making or privacy
Who first described the biopsychosocial model of illness and health and when?
George Engel in the 1970s
What is a risk factor for cervical ribs?
Higher incidence of childhood tumors
What is the burden of health measured using?
What is the utilitisation delay?
Time taken from deciding you need treatment until when you seek it
What is the most common type of meningitis in the UK?
What is a deontological judgement?
Judgement of an act rather than its causes
What is the waiting time for a non-urgent hospital appointment?
What may affect the validity of case-control studies?
What was the life expectancy in 1841?
What does standard deviation measure?
The variation of the mean
What is a criticism of community care?
Those who used to end up in asylums are ow ending up in prisons
What do cognitive neuropsychologists do?
Work on assessment and rehabilitation of people with brain injury
When are drugs implemented into practice?
At phase 4
What is a criticism of the biopsychosocial model of illness?
Psychosocial interventions tend to have weak affects on health
What % of people describe themselves as not in good health?
What is a Lihert scale?
Where the options refer to how much someone agrees or disagrees with something
What is considered the biggest threat to health currently?
When do the first clinical trials of drugs occur?
Why were asylums closed?
New policy of community care and integration into society
What must the person obtaining consent for a procedure be?
Qualified to carry out that procedure whether or not they will actually carry it out
After referral for suspected cancer how quickly should the patient be seen ideally?
Within 2 weeks
How do WHO define health?
Ability to realise aspirations, satisfy needs, change and cope with the enviroment
What do health psychologists do?
Studies cognitive health behaviours which cause health behaviours
What is the Hawthorne affect?
Changes in behaviour due to the awareness of being measured
What kind of group is most likely to be used in qualitative research?
A focus group
What proportion of new presentations to general practice can be accounted for by medically unexplained symptoms?
How can we prevent the spread of meningitis?
Tracing those who have come into close contact with an infected person
Where do the bones of middle ear arise from?
The bones of the jaw
What is the average number of symptoms felt over 2 weeks?
What is the equation for standard error?
Standard deviation divided by the square root of sample size
How many medicines are available in the average household?
What happens at phase 3 of drug trials?
Double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trials
How would you calculate the standard error for a proportion?
Square root of: [(proportion with x proportion without) divided by sample size]
What is intention-to-treat analysis?
All patients are included in the study regardless of what happens after that point