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Flashcards in Practice Test 1 Deck (97):
1

achromatopsia

complete loss of color vision from lack of functional cone cells

2

caffeine intoxication

restlessness, psychomotor agitation, flushed face, diuresis, rambling speech, muscle twitching

3

Pearson r

both variables are continuous

4

Spearman rho

both variables are ranked

5

biserial correlational coefficient

one variable is an artificial dichotomy, and one variable is continuous

6

point biserial correlational coefficient

one variable is a true dichotomy, and one variable is continuous

7

categorical approach

determining whether or not a person meets criteria for diagnosis (like in the DSM)

8

dimensional approach

individual is ranked on a quantitative dimension (like a scale of 1 to 10) on each symptom

9

credentialing

formal process for determining whether or not a provider meets and maintains qualification standards and provides legal protections for managed care offices

10

it is acceptable to include client testimonials in an advertisement as long as:

testimonials were not solicited from current clients or others who are vulnerable to undue influence

11

the concepts of "job relatedness" and "business necessity" are associated with:

adverse impact

12

in Freudian psychoanalysis, clarification:

brings a confusing or unclear issue into focus

13

A researcher interested in retention of information in short-term memory shows participants a list of five letters and asks them to memorize the list. She then instructs them to count backward by 3s from 99. After 6 seconds, 12, seconds, and 18 seconds, she asks them to recall the list. They are asked to count backwards to:

keep them from rehearsing the list of letters

14

A colleague tells you that one of his clients is sexually abusing his daughter, and says he is not going to report it. You should:

contact CPS and provide them with information about the abuse and with the colleague's name.

15

to assess the reliability of a characteristic that fluctuates in severity or intensity over time (is a state), you should use:

the coefficient of internal consistency

16

coefficient of stability is obtained:

when using test-retest reliability, would not be appropriate for a measure of a characteristic that fluctuates over time

17

Helm's White Racial Identity Development Model specifies that the "flexibility and complexity" strategy is characteristic of which status?

autonomy

18

Symptoms of stimulant intoxication

pupillary dilation, nausea, and muscular weakness

19

Symptoms of phencyclidine (PCP) intoxication

nystagmus, numbness, and muscle rigidity

20

Symptoms of inhalant intoxication

blurred vision, tremor, and depressed reflexes

21

Symptoms of stimulant withdrawal

fatigue, increased appetite, and vivid dreams

22

negatively skewed distribution

when the mean is less than the median, and the median is less than the mode

23

leptokurtic distribution

when the distribution of scores is more "peaked" than the normal distribution

24

platykurtic distribution

when the distribution of scores is flatter than the normal distribution

25

positively skewed distribution

the mean is larger than the median, and the median is larger than the mode

26

parents low in control and low in warmth
(rejecting/neglecting parents)

children and adolescents most likely to be antisocial, use drugs and alcohol, and achieve low scores on cognitive tests

27

parents low in control and high in warmth
(permissive/laissez faire parents)

children are immature, impulsive, and self-centered and low in achievement orientation

28

parents high in control and low in warmth
(authoritarian parents)

children are aggressive, mistrusting and dependent, with low self-esteem and low academic achievement

29

parents high in control and high in warmth
(authoritative parents)

children are mature, resilient, achievement oriented, and responsible, and do well in school

30

children show awareness of racial differences by ages

3 or 4

31

children show a sophisticated understanding of race (understand it as a physical, social, and biological category) by age

10

32

The more statistical comparisons within a research study, the greater likelihood of making a _____ error

Type I error

33

MANOVA is used to

simultaneously assess the effects of one or more independent variables on two or more dependent variables

34

according to herzberg's two factor theory, hygiene factors include:

job security, pay and benefits, relationships with coworkers, working conditions, and company policies

35

according to herzberg's two factor theory, motivator factors include:

the nature of the work itself and opportunities for responsibility, achievement, and promotion

36

the two factors of herzberg's two factor theory are:

hygiene and motivator factors

hygiene factors contribute to dissatisfaction when inadequate but not satisfaction and motivation.

motivator factors do not contribute to dissatisfaction, but contribute to satisfaction and motivation when adequate

37

genetically, colorblindness is:

a recessive trait carried on the X chromosome

for a son to be colorblind, he would have to inherit the colorblind gene from his mother

for a daughter to be colorblind, she would have to inherit the colorblind gene from both parents

38

neuroleptic malignant syndrome

rare disorder that can occur with any class of neuroleptic drug (like clozapine)

symptoms include tachycardia, muscle rigidity, hyperthermia, altered consciousness, and autonomic dysfunction

can be fatal if not recognized early and the drug is immediately stopped

39

carbamazepine

an anticonvulsant drug that is useful for treating bipolar disorder

40

Wonderlich Personnel Test-Revised (WPT-R)

12 minute test of mental ability for adults

used to assist employers with hiring decisions

41

by 3-4 months of age, infants express the following emotions through facial expressions

interest, sadness, distress, disgust

42

by 6-8 months of age, infants express the following emotions through facial expressions

anger, joy, surprise, fear

43

Metcalfe and Mischel are associated with

delayed gratification

44

hot/cool system of delayed gratification refers to

Metcalfe and Mischel

the hot system is emotional and demands immediate gratification

the cool system is cognitive and can divert attention away from the hot system

hot system develops first in kids

45

William Glassner is associated with

Reality Therapy

46

Victor Frankl is associated with

Existential Therapy

47

Fritz Perls is associated with

Gestalt Therapy

48

George Kelly is associated with

Personal Construct Therapy

49

personal constructs are

bipolar dimension of meaning that determine how a person perceives, interprets, and predicts events

50

"accidental" messages (like overhearing) are associated with

greater attitude change than intended messages

51

listeners are better able to resist a persuasive message if they have been

forewarned about its content

52

a communicator arguing against their own best interest

is more likely to change the attitude of listeners than someone arguing to advance their own interests

53

a moderate discrepancy in position between the listener and the communicator

is associated with greater attitude change than a high or low discrepancy

54

for the Rorschach test, form quality refers to

the degree to which an response matches the actual form of the inkblot and provides information on the degree of congruence between the response and reality

55

Minuchin's 3 types of rigid triads

detouring, stable coalition, triangulation

56

detouring

when parents avoid the tension between them by either blaming or overprotecting a child

57

stable coalition

when a parent and child consistently "gang up" against the other parent

58

triangulation

when both parents try to get the child to side with him or her

59

Rehm's self-control theory

depression is attributable to deficits in self-monitoring, self-evaluation, and self-reinforcement

60

research on facial expression of emotion demonstrates that

there are several universal facial expressions that may be mediated in terms of intensity by cultural factors

61

regarding skeletal age and sex

girls are ahead in terms of skeletal age from birth, which is why they reach full height before boys do

62

process consultation assumes that

behavior change precedes attitude change

63

Spearman-Brown formula

linked to reliability

Spearman-Brown prophecy formula

used to estimate the effects of adding or subtracting items to a test on its reliability coefficient

64

family therapy is contraindicated when one member of the family has

severe depression

65

common versus classic migraines

classic migraines begin with an aura

common migraines do not begin with an aura

lifting or bending can make both worse

generally involve throbbing pain

66

cluster headaches

sharp, unilateral, and usually accompanied by autonomic symptoms

67

substance NOT likely to produce a substance-induced psychotic disorder

opioids

68

sampling error is due to

random factors that produce a nonrepresentative sample

69

on the Adult Attachment Interview, dismissing individuals describe their parents

in positive terms that are not substantiated by descriptions of actual interactions

70

on the Adult Attachment Interview, preoccupied individuals

are confused, angry, or passively preoccupied with attachment figures

71

on the Adult Attachment Interview, unresolved/disorganized individuals

have an unresolved experience related to loss or abuse

it is assigned in conjunction with one of the three categories: autonomous, dismissing, or preoccupied

72

the main challenge of mandating Evidenced Based Therapies

lack of consistency across the field

varied type and intensity of training that differs across regions

73

somatosensory cortex is located

on the postcentral gyrus in the parietal lobe

74

Vygotsky viewed cognitive development as

initially interpersonal and then intrapersonal once the child internalizes what they learned

speech goes from social, to private (self-direction), to internal (tool for thinking)

75

to determine competence to stand trial, you evaluate a person's

current mental status

76

to determine the insanity defense, you evaluate a person's

status at the time of the crime

77

the purpose of the Solomon four-group design is to

evaluate the effects of pretesting on a study's internal and external validity

78

in a normal distribution, what percentage of scores are within one standard deviation?

68%

79

in a normal distribution, what percentage of scores are within two standard deviations?

95%

80

in a normal distribution, what percentage of scores are within three standard deviations?

99.7%

81

Weisz and colleagues found that psychotherapy outcomes for children and adolescents, the largest effect size is for

female adolescents

82

Weisz and colleagues found that psychotherapy outcomes for children and adolescents, the smallest effect size is for

male adolescents

83

Wernicke's area is located in the

temporal lobe

84

Broca's area is located in the

frontal lobe

85

the three components of a needs assessment are

organization analysis
task analysis
person analysis

86

when using animals in research, the principal investigator

is ultimately responsible for the animals him/herself

87

Piaget's four stages of cognitive development

Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete Operational
Formal Operational

88

sensorimotor stage

birth to 2 years

child learns through senses

most learning is the result of circular reactions (6 substages)

89

sensorimotor substage 1

reflexive schemes

birth to 1 month

infant exercises reflexes

90

sensorimotor substage 2

primary circular reactions

1-4 months

infant attempts to repeat pleasurable events involving their own body (thumb sucking)

91

sensorimotor substage 3

secondary circular reactions

4-8 months

infant attempts to reproduce pleasurable events involving other people or objects (rattle shaking)

92

sensorimotor substage 4

coordinated secondary circular reactions

8-12 months

infant combines secondary circular reactions into more complex action sequences (uncovers object then grasps it)

93

sensorimotor substage 5

tertiary circular reactions

12-18 months

infant deliberately varies an action or action sequence to discover the consequences of doing so (drops toy from different heights)

94

sensorimotor substage 6

mental representation

18-24 months

infant develops symbolic thought, forms internal representations that allow him/her to think about absent objects and past events and to anticipate the consequences of actions

95

preoperational stage

2-7 years

symbolic function, an extension of representational thought, more sophisticated symbolic play, mental problem solving,

incomplete understanding of cause and effect, magical thinking, animism

96

concrete operational stage

7 to 11 or 12 years

capable of mental operations, logical rules, sophisticated classification, ordering, part/whole relationships, conservation involving horizontal decalage (gradual acquisition of conservation abilities)

97

Formal operational stage

11 or 12 years +

abstract thinking and hypothetico-deductive reasoning

adolescent egocentrism involving the personal fable and the imaginary audience