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Flashcards in precipitation systems in midlatitude Deck (89)
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1

Precipitation may be classified as

convective and stratiform

2

Precipitation characterized by

turbulent vertical fluxes of heat and momentum

3

Precipitation characterized by turbulent vertical fluxes of heat and momentum such as

showers and thunderstorms are convective.

4

Convective precipitation regions are relatively ................. and precipitation from them tend to be

Narrow intermittent and intense

5

Convective precipitation systems may be

hydrostatic (e.g., as in extratropical cyclones and frontal zones) or non-hydrostatic (e.g., showers and thunderstorms)

6

Stratiform Precipitation Systems these systems are characterized by

relatively gentle vertical fluxes of heat and momentum

7

Stratiform Precipitation Systems This type of precipitation is often found

poleward of warm fronts in a broad region of warm advection.

8

Stratiform precipitation systems are always

hydrostatic

9

Stratiform precipitation regions are relatively

wide, and precipitation from them tends to be steady.

10

Cumulus Convection:

Convection that results in the formation of cumulus clouds (or sometimes thunderstorms) with a flat base and rounded puffy top.

11

Convection refers primarily to atmospheric motions that

transfer heat, moisture and momentum in the vertical direction.

12

As the surface warms, it

heats the overlying air, which gradually becomes less dense than the surrounding air and begins to rise.

13

thermal

The bubble of relatively warm air that rises upward from the surface

14

Convective clouds (such as ....................) are usually referred as

cumulonimbus deep, if their depth is a substantial fraction of the depth of the troposphere.

15

Deep cumulus convection may be “based” either in

the boundary layer or aloft.

16

A parcel of air that is warmer than its environment will

A parcel of air that is warmer than its environment will

17

As an unsaturated air parcel located near the surface rises, its temperature will

follow a dry adiabat

18

lifted condensation level (LCL)

Where the dry adiabat crosses the saturation mixing ratio line, the air becomes saturated and condensation commences.

19

when does level of free convection LFC occure

If there is no convective inhibition blocking the ascent of the rising air parcel, the lifted condensation level becomes the level of free convection, or LFC.

20

Level of Free Convection (LFC):

The height at which a lifted parcel of air would first become warmer (less dense) than the surrounding air.

21

As the parcel continues to rise, it follows a

moist adiabat

22

As the parcel continues to rise, it follows a moist adiabat. Once the parcel reaches the ......... and becomes .......................................

LFC and becomes less dense than the surrounding air

23

Once the parcel reaches the LFC and becomes less dense than the surrounding air, it continues to

rise freely until it becomes as cool (as dense) as the surrounding air.

24

Once the parcel reaches the LFC and becomes less dense than the surrounding air, it continues to rise freely until it becomes as cool (as dense) as the surrounding air. This upper level is the

Equilibrium Level (EL).

25

CAPE stands for

Convective Available Potential Energy

26

An estimate of buoyant energy can be computed by

determining the temperature difference between the ascent path and the environment at all levels from the LFC up through the equilibrium level.

27

the positive area between two curves equals

When we sum up all of these temperature differences, we arrive at a number equal to

28

................................................. is CAPE, which is given by:

The quantitative measure of this positive area

29

CAPE is measured in units of

J/kg

30

The environmental CAPE for convective storms is often in the range of

1000-2000 J/kg