Flashcards in Premed and sedation drugs Deck (18)
Describe the ideal anaesthesia
Achieves the triad
Smooth induction and recovery
Minimal effect on body systems
How do we achieve the ideal anaesthesia?
Use a combination of drugs
Reduces the dose required of each individual drug
Therefore likelihood of side effects is reduced
Synergistic effect (1 + 1 > 2)
What are the anaesthetic protocol stages?
What are the aims of pre-medication?
Calm the patient
Reduce the total dose of anaesthetic drugs needed
To allow a smooth recovery
Reduce autonomic side effects
To reduce other side effects of anaesthesia
Give examples of pre-meds used
Generally used in combination with an opioid
Effects: Aggression & seizures
Problems: Bracycephalics and boxers
Bind to specific receptors in CNS to block pain signals
Pure agonist / partial agonist / pure antagonist
Partial agonists tend to bind most strongly to receptor sites
Compete for the same sites if given together (theoretically)
Diazepam and midazolam
Describe a-2 agonists
Reduces total anaesthetic dose (by 50% or more)
Gives visceral analgesia
Medetomidine, xylazine, dexmedetomidine
What are some potential problems with a-2 agonists?
Profound cardiovascular effects
Unreliable on its own for sedation
When may a-2 agonists be used?
alone or with opioids for pre-meds
at higher doses for sedation (e.g. cleaning ears) and if used with an opioid provide enough analgesia for minor wound repair.
The effects are variable, may wake unexpectedly, noise sensitive. Beware !
In combination with an opioid and ketamine for general anaesthesia.
May be given iv or im. The sc route is less reliable. Can also be absorbed across mms so take care when handling!
Medetomidine and dexmedetomidine can be reversed with Atipamezole
Block parasympathetic system
Reduce respiratory secretions
What are some potential problems with Anti-muscarinics?
May cause tachycardia
Cause dry mouth
Boxers and other brachycephalic breeds?
Enucleation involving traction on the eyeball?
Only one in veterinary use is Fluanisone
in Hypnorm, licensed for rabbits, in combination with the opioid Fentanyl
tranquilliser (neuroleptic) combined with a potent analgesic (opioid) to give heavy sedation or anaesthesia.
Often considered part of a pre-med
Sometimes contentious issue between vets…
Reduces renal blood flow
Compare sedation to pre-med
Often the same drugs used
Doses may be higher for sedation
The term sedation tends to be used when not progressed to full anaesthesia
How do you calculate a dog if given in ml/kg?
volume to be given (ml) = dose (ml/kg) x weight (kg)