Flashcards in Surgery of the ailmentary tract Deck (42)
A condition normally seen in deep chested animals e.g. Greyhounds, German Shepherds, Pointers etc
Usually the animal has been fed, normally on dry food, and then exercised
What are the early clinical signs of GDV?
Attempting to vomit (unproductive retching)
Tachycardia with possible arrhythmias and tachypnoea
Pale mucus membranes and increases CRT
Describe the pathogenesis of GDV
Stomach dilates due to accumulation of gas or fluid
The dilation can progress to a torsion if the stomach starts to rotate
The rotation twists the distal oesophagus and the duodenum stopping anything leaving the stomach in either direction
Stomach continues to extend putting pressure on the hepatic portal vein and caudal vena cava – reducing venous return
Hypovolaemic shock occurs due to the reduced blood flow back to the heart
Blood flow to the stomach is compromised resulting in necrosis of the stomach wall
Describe management of GDV
One or both methods used in an attempt to stabilise the patient prior to surgery
What equipment is needed for a orogastric intubation?
Wide-bore stomach tube
7.5cm wide roll of adhesive bandage with a hollow plastic core
Warmed normal (0.9%) saline, lactated Ringer’s (Hartmann’s) solution or tap water
Describe patient prep for an orogastric intubation
Sedated if anxious – care hypotension
Right lateral abdominal radiograph
Place on table or trolley to use gravity
Sitting or sternal, right lateral if needed
Describe placement of orogastric intubation
Mark stomach tube – level of dogs nose to 11th rib
Insert the bandage into the dogs mouth.
Hold closed or apply tape as a muzzle
Insert stomach tube through bandage core.
Rotation of the tube can help passage
What equipment is needed for a percutaneous needle?
Normal surgical prep equipment
16 or 18G over the needle intravenous catheter.
Describe patient prep for a percutaneous needle
Sedation and radiography as above
Position patient in left lateral or sternal recumbency
Aseptic skin preparation over the most distended part of the right abdominal wall.
Describe how to use a percutaneous needle for a GDV
Define the site of greatest tympany
Insert the catheter though the abdominal wall directly into the stomach
Remove the stylet of the catheter and allow air to escape freely from the stomach.
What are the goals of surgery for a GDV?
To decompress the stomach
Return the stomach to its normal anatomical position. Normally the stomach rotates in a clockwise direction
Evaluate organs such as the stomach, spleen and pancreas for viability
Perform a gastropexy to prevent recurrence.
What is an gastrotomy?
incision into the stomach
When is a gastrotomy required for a GDV?
indicated to remove any large food particles still in the stomach and unreleased gas
What are GDV patients susceptible to?
hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias
Why is GDV surgery high risk?
Immediately after the stomach is returned to its normal position due to the release of toxins into the blood stream
What is a gastropexy?
Recommended treatment following a GDV
Surgical fixation of the stomach. Most commonly to the abdominal wall
Describe complications of a gastropexy
Abdominal wall dehiscence
Describe post operative care for GDV surgery
Close patient monitoring is essential in the first 48 hours
The prognosis should always be guarded – endotoxic shock
Intravenous fluids should continue until the animal is eating well
Reintroduction of food gradually of a bland nature. Timing is dependant on the vets management
How can you prevent GDV?
Feed animals at least twice daily
Do not exercise after food
Feed from a height
Describe foreign bodies
Normally caused by the ingestion of non digestible materials
The location of the object will depend on its size, larger items tend to stay within the stomach
What are the clinical signs of a foreign body?
How do you diagnose a foreign body?
Some foreign bodies can be palpated
Confirmation is normally undertaken by radiography
Contrast media may be required
What surgery options are available for a foreign body?
Exploratory Laparotomy to determine (confirm) needed procedure
Incision into the stomach to create an opening
Use of ‘stay sutures’ to ease the procedure
Incision into the intestine to create an opening
Use of Doyle's Intestinal forceps or assistants fingers to clamp bowel
Describe an enterectomy
Removal of a section of bowel if the tissue has been compromised
Use of Doyle's forceps or assistants fingers to clamp to bowel
Anastomosis to reconnect the intestine
Following surgery Omentum is wrapped around the operation site
Describe a linear foreign body
Result in a partial obstruction only
Vague symptoms seen
Commonly in cats linear fb’s are anchored around the tongue
Why might a linear foreign body be dangerous?
Intestines ‘bunch up’ around FB
FB may cut through mesenteric border and result in multiple perforations
Removal involves multiple enterotomies and careful inspection of GI tract
Describe post operative care for the removal of a foreign body
Intravenous fluids until the animal is eating well
Introduction of small, bland meals
Observation for vomiting and diarrhoea
Monitor for signs of peritonitis –
Gradual reintroduction of normal diet
What is intussusception?
Invagination of one part of the intestine into another.
Classified according to the site at which they occur. Commonly - ileocaecocolic
Increased motility in a segment of intestine (hyper motility) adjacent to a segment that has lack of motility (ileus) can cause the hyper motile segment to telescope into the segment with ileus, resulting in an intussusception.
What are the most common animals to get an intussesception?
APPROXIMATELY 80% OF CASES LESS THAN ONE YEAR
IN DOGS MOST CASES THREE MONTHS OR YOUNGER.