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Flashcards in Preposiciones y Contectores III Deck (40):
1

 

DIFERENCIA ENTRE LINKER Y CONJUNCTION

 

CONJUNCTIONS

A conjunction joins two clauses together.

"I was tired so I went to bed early"

 

LINKER ADVERBIALS

A linker adverbial joins two sentences. It must be after a full stop and followed by a comma.

"They were tired. Therefore, they went to bed early"

2

 

[CONJUNCIÓN DE CAUSA]

Debido a, por causa de, a causa de (conjunción de causa)

 

"Se retrasó el partido debido al mal tiempo"

 

Nota: debido al hecho de que ... "No jugó el partido debido al hecho de que llegó tarde"

 

[CAUSE CONJUNCTION]

Due to /djuː tʊ|tuː/ because of /bɪˈkɒz ɒv/, on account of /ɒn əˈkaʊnt ɒv/, owing to /ˈəʊɪŋ tʊ|tuː/

 

"The game was delayed due to bad weather"

 

Structure: SVC + due to / because of / on account of / owing to + noun/pronoun

Note: all of them can be at the beginnig of the sentence to add emphasis.

Note: "due to the fact that" /djuː tʊ|tuː ðə fækt ðæt/, "on account of the fact that" /ɒn əˈkaʊnt ɒv ðə fækt ðæt/ ... "He didn't play the match due to the fact that/on account of the fact that he was late"

3

 

[CONJUNCIÓN DE CAUSA]

Como, tal y como, ya que, dado que, puesto que

 

"Ya que/como/dado que estás cansado, vamos a quedarnos en casa"

"Puesto que suspendió el examen, su madre no le permitió salir a cenar"

 

[CAUSE CONJUNCTION]

As /æz, əz/, since /sɪns/

 

"Since/as you're tired, let's stay at home"

"As/since he didn't pass his examen, his mother didn't allowed him to eat out"

 

Note: is more common to use "as" as "como" that "since"

Structure: As/since + SVC, SVC

4

 

[CONJUNCIÓN DE CAUSA]

Porque

 

"No puedo comprarme esa casa porque no tengo suficiente dinero"

 

[CAUSE CONJUNCTION]

Becuase /bɪˈkɒz/ (cause conjunction)

 

"I can't buy that house because I haven't got enough money"

Structure: SCV because SVC

5

 

[CONJUNCIÓN DE CONTRASTE]

Prep. de circunstancia: aunque

 

"Aunque estaba lloviendo fuimos de excursión"

"Me lo comeré aunque no me gusta"

 

[CONTRAST CONJUNCTION]

Although /ɔːlˈðəʊ/, though /ðəʊ/, even though /ˈiːvən ðəʊ/

 

"We went out for the day though it was raining"

"I'll eat it although I don't like"

 

Structure: Although/even though/though SVC, SVC

Structure: SVC although/even though/though SVC

Aditional structure (only for though): SVC. SVC, though

6

 

[CONJUNCIÓN DE CONTRASTE]

Mientras que

 

"A él le gusta el brócoli mientras que ella lo odia"

 

[CONTRAST CONJUNCTION]

Whereas /wɛərˈæz/, whilst /waɪlst(

 

"He likes broccoli whereas she hates it"

Structure: Whereas/whilst SVC, SVC.

Structure: SVC whereas/whilst SVC

7

 

[LINKER DE CONTRASTE]

Sin embargo

 

"Es una buena idea. Sin embargo, creo que no podremos conseguir el dinero para hacerlo"

"El no había desayunado, sin embargo, no tenía hambre"

 

[CONTRAST LINKER]

However /haʊˈevəʳ/, Yet /jet/, Still /stɪl/, Neverthless /ˌnevəðəˈles/

 

"It's a good idea. Nevertheless/However, I think we won't be able to get the money to do it"

"He hadn't eaten breakfast, still/yet, he wasn't hungry"

 

Note: however also means "independientemente", "sin importar" ("We can accept no mistakes, however small" (sin importar lo pequeño que sea))

Structure: SVC. However/Nevertheless, SVC

Structure: SVC, yet/still, SVC

8

 

[LINKER DE CONTRASTE]

Al contrario, por el contrario, opuestamente

 

"¿Crees que la gente no puede cambiar? ¡Al contrario, sí que pueden!"

 

[CONTRAST LINKER]

On the contrary /ɒn ðə kənˈtrɛərɪ/, By contrast /baɪ kənˈtrɑːst/, In contrast /ɪn kənˈtrɑːst/

 

"Do you think the people can't change? On the contrary, they can!"

9

 

[LINKER DE CONTRASTE]

Por un lado ..., por otro lado ...

 

"Por un lado me gusta dormir. Por otro lado, si duermes mucho quizás pierdas el tiempo"

 

[CONTRAST LINKER]

On the one hand /ɒn ðə wʌn hænd/ ..., on the other hand /ɒn ðə ˈʌðəʳ hænd/ ...

 

"On the one hand I like sleeping. On the other hand, if you sleep a lot you might waste time"

 

Structure: On the one hand, SVC. On the other hand, SVC.

10

 

[CONJUNCIÓN DE CONTRASTE]

De la manera que

 

"Puedes hacerlo de la manera que quieras"

 

[CONTRAST CONJUNCTION]

However /haʊˈevəʳ/

 

"You can do it however you want to"

 

Structure: SVC however SVC

11

 

[CONJUNCIÓN DE CONTRASTE]

Prep. de circunstancia: A pesar de, pese a

 

"Fue un buen partido a pesar del mal tiempo"

"Continuó fumando a pesar del consejo de su médico"

 

Nota: A pesar de/A pesar del hecho de + frase ("Lo compró a pesar de que/aunque creía que era muy caro", "Decidí caminar a la biblioteca a pesar de que/aunque estaba lloviendo")

 

[CONTRAST CONJUNCTION]

Despite /dɪsˈpaɪt/, In spite of /ɪn spaɪt ɒv/

 

"It was a great match despite the bad weather"

"I continued smoking in spite of his doctor's advice"

 

Note: "Despite the fact (that)|in spite of/dɪsˈpaɪt ðə fækt (ðæt)|ɪn spaɪt ɒv/ + sentence ("He bought it despite the fact (that) he thought it was very expensive") or "even though" /ˈiːvən ðəʊ/ ("I decided to walk to the library even though it was raining")

Structure: despite/in spite of + v-ing when the two parts of the sencente talk about the same subject ("Despite being rich, he isn't happy". The same people who is rich is not happy too)

Structure: Despite/in spite of + noun when the two sentences have different subjects ("Despite the lock of job opportunities, he isn't worried")

Structure: Despite the fact (that)/in spite of SVC, SVC

Structure: SVC despite the fact (that)/in spite of SVC

12

 

[LINKER CONDICIONAL]

Si (condicional)

 

"Si me traes una tarta, te daré un beso"

 

[CONDITIONAL LINKER]

If /ɪf/

 

"If you bring me a cake, I'll kiss you"

 

Structure: If SVC, SVC.

Structure: SVC if SVC

13

 

[LINKER CONDICIONAL]

A menos que

 

"Jack no vendrá a la fiesta a menos que lo llames"

 

[CONDITIONAL LINKER]

Unless /ənˈles/

 

"Jack won't come to the party unless you phone him"

 

Structure: SV(-)C unless SV(+)C

Structure: Unless SV(+)C, SV(-)C

14

 

[LINKER CONDICIONAL]

Siempre y cuando

 

"Iré contigo siempre y cuando no te importe"

 

[CONDITIONAL LINKER]

As long as /æz|əz lɒŋ æz|əz/

 

"I'll go with you as long as you don't mind"

 

Structure: As long as SVC, SVC

Structure: SVC as long as SVC

15

 

[LINKER CONDICIONAL]

Con tal de que

 

"Poco le importa a la gente con tal de que ganen dinero"

 

[CONDITIONAL LINKER]

Provided (that) /prəˈvaɪdɪd (ðæt)/, Providing (that) /prəˈvaɪdɪŋ (ðæt)/

 

"People could not care less, provided they earn money"

 

Structure: Provided (that)/Providing (that) SVC, SVC

Structure: SVC provided (that)/providing (that) SVC

16

 

[LINKER CONDICIONAL]

Suponiendo (que)

 

"Suponiendo que dijera que sí, ¿te sorprenderías?"

 

[CONDITIONAL LINKER]

Supposing /səˈpəʊzɪŋ/

 

"Supposing he sais yes, would that surprise you?"

 

Structure: Supposing SVC, SVC

17

 

[LINKER CONDICIONAL]

A condición de que

 

"Iré a la fiesta a condición de que vengas conmigo"

 

[CONDITIONAL LINKER]

On condition that /ɒn kənˈdɪʃən ðæt/

 

"I'll go to the party on condition that you come with me"

 

Structure: On condition that SVC, SVC

Structure: SVC on condition that SVC

Note: it is usually used at the beginning

18

 

[LINKER CONDICIONAL]

Por si, en caso de que

 

"Iré contigo por si pierdes al autobús"

"Úsala sólo en caso de emergencia"

 

[CONDITIONAL LINKER]

In case /ɪn keɪs ɒv/, In case of /ɪn keɪs ɒv/

 

"I'll go with you in case you miss the bus"

"Use it just in case of emergency"

 

Structure: SVC in case SVC

Structure: In case SVC, SVC

Structure: In case of + noun

19

 

[LINKER DE PROPÓSITO]

Para (que), a fin de (que), con el fin de (que), de modo que (mismo sujero)

 

"Tienes que seguir entrenando para mejorar"

"Compré este diccionario para aprender más vocabulario"

 

[PURPOSE LINKER]

For /fɔːʳ/, To /tʊ|tuː/, In order (not) to /ɪn ˈɔːdəʳ (nɒt) tʊ|tuː/, so as (not) to /səʊ æz|əz (nɒt) tʊ|tuː/

 

"You must keep on practising to/in order to/so as to improve"

"I bought this dictionary for learning more vocabulary"

 

Structure: SVC to/in order (not) to/so as (not) to SVC

Structure: SVC for + v-ing

Note: for (informal), to (neutral), in order to/so as to (formal)

20

 

[LINKER DE PROPÓSITO]

Para (que), a fin de (que), con el fin de (que), de modo que (distinto sujero)

 

"Compré este diccionario para que mis estudiantes aprendieran más vocabulario"

"Debe venir todos los dias para que tu madre pueda pagar el curso"

 

[PURPOSE LINKER]

For /fɔːʳ/ + somebody + to inf

In order that /ɪn ˈɔːdəʳ ðæt/, so that /səʊ ðæt/ + Past Simple/Modal Verb, + Inf.

 

"I bought this dictionary for my students to learn more vocabulary"

"You must come every day in order that/so that your mother can pay the school year"

 

Structure: SVC in order that/so that SVC

21

 

[LINKER DE RESULTADO]

Como consecuencia de, en consecuencia de, por consecuencia de, a raíz de

 

"Fue castigado como consecuencia de su mal comportamiento"

Nota: como consecuencia, en consecuencia (al principio de oración). "El muchacho suspendió su examen. En consecuencia, no podrá salir este fin de semana"

 

[RESULT LINKER]

As a consequence of /æz|əz ə ˈkɒnsɪkwəns ɒv/, as a result of /æz|əz ə rɪˈzʌlt ɒv/

 

"He was punished as a consequence of his bad behaviour"

 

Note: "as a consequence", "as a result", "consequently", "as a result of it", "therefore". "The boy didn't pass his exam. As a consequence/.../..., he won't be able to go out this weekend"

Structure (as a consequence of/as a result of): SVC as a consequence of/as a result of SVC

Structure (as a consequence/as a result/consequently/as a result of it/therefore): SVC. As a consequence/.../..., SVC

22

 

[LINKER DE CONCLUSIÓN]

En conculsión, para concluir, ...

 

[CONCLUDE LINKER]

In conclusion /ɪn kənˈkluːʒən/, To sum up /tʊ|tuː sʌm ʌp/, In short /ɪn ʃɔːt/, To summarize we can say /tʊ|tuː ˈsʌməraɪz wiː kæn seɪ/, On the whole /ɒn ðə həʊl/, To conclude the main points /tʊ|tuː kənˈkluːd ðə meɪn pɔɪnts/

 

Structure: SVC. In conclusion/to sum up/.../..., SVC

23

 

[LINKER DE COMPARACIÓN]

Comparado con

 

"Comparado con Juan, Pepe es un gigante."

 

Nota: se puede expresar comparación utilizando "entre ... y ...". "Hay mucha diferencia de precio entre este y aquel"

Nota: hacer una comparación. "Si haces una comparación, por ejemplo comparas dos ideas diferentes"

 

[COMPARISON LINKER]

Compared to /kəmˈpɛərd tʊ|tuː/, In comparison with /ɪn kəmˈpærɪsn wɪð|wɪθ/

 

"In comparison with/Compared to John, Ollie's a giant."

 

Structure: SVC compared to/in comparison with + Noun

Structure: Compared to/in comparison with + Noun, SVC.

Note: between ... and ... "There is much price difference between this one and that one"

Note: to draw/make a comparison. "If you draw/make a comparison you compare two differents ideas for example"

24

 

[LINKER DE GENERALIZACIÓN]

De forma general, generalmente hablando, en términos generales

 

[GENERALISIN LINKER]

To a large extend /tʊ|tuː a|ə lɑːdʒ ɪksˈtend/, Above all /əˈbʌv ɔːl/, In many ways /ɪn ˈmenɪ weɪs/, Generally speaking /ˈdʒenərəlɪ ˈspiːkɪŋ/, In general terms /ɪn ˈdʒenərəl t3ːms/

 

Structure: SVC. To a large extend/above all/.../..., SVC

25

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Prep. de tiempo: Desde (sólo tiempo)

 

"He estado trabajando desde esta mañana"

"Ha estado enferma desde el lunes"

"Ha estado lloviendo desde ayer"

 

[TIME LINKER]

Since /sɪns/

 

"I've been working since this morning"

"She's been sick since Monday"

"It's been raining since yesterday"

 

Structure: SVC since SVC

26

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Prep. de tiempo: Hasta

 

"Los resultados no serán anunciados hasta el jueves"

"¿Por qué no te quedas hasta mañana?"

"¿Puedes trabajar hoy hasta las 9?"

 

Nota: hasta entonces, hasta ese momento. "Se casó a los 40. Hasta ese momento siempre vivió solo."

 

[TIME LINKER]

Until /ənˈtɪl/, till /tɪl/, up to /ʌp tʊ|tuː/, by /baɪ/

 

"The results won't be announced until Thursday"

"Why don't you stay up to tomorrow?"

"Can you work today till 9 o'clock?"

 

Note: "by" means that something happens not after, and probably before, of a fixed time ("We'll finish the work by 5 o'clock")

Note: "until" means that something continues until, but not beyond, of a mention time ("This house will remain closed until this afternoon")

Note: until then. "He got married when he was 40. Until then, he always lived alone."

Structure (until): SVC until SVC

Structure (until then): SVC. Until then, SVC

27

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Entonces, después

 

"Él fue a la oficina de correos, luego fue al banco"

"Si te comes toda tu comida, entonces podrás comerte un pastel"

 

[TIME LINKER]

Then /ðen/

 

""He went to the post office, then he went to the bank"

"If you eat all your food, then you will be able to eat a cake"

 

Structure: SVC, then SVC

28

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Tan pronto como

 

"Ven tan pronto como puedas"

 

[TIME LINKER]

As soon as /æz|əz suːn æz|əz/

 

"Come as soon as you can"

 

Structure: SVC as soon as SVC

29

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Mientras

 

"Ella escribió un correo mientras estaba mirando la televisión"

"El martillo se resbaló de su cinturón mientras subía la escalera"

 

[TIME LINKER]

While /waɪl/, as /æz|əz/

 

"She wrote an email while she was watching TV"

"His hammer slipped from his belt as he was climbing the ladder"

 

Structure: SVC while/as SVC

30

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Para cuando

 

"Para cuando su madre llegó a casa él había terminado sus deberes"

 

[TIME LINKER]

By the time /baɪ ðə taɪm/

 

"He had finished his homework by the time his mother arrived at home"

 

Structure: SVC by the time SVC

31

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Cuando sea

 

"Puedes venir cuando quieras"

 

[TIME LINKER]

Whenever /wenˈevəʳ/

 

"You can come whenever you want"

 

Structure: SVC whenever SVC

32

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Inicialmente, primeramente

 

[TIME LINKER]

Initially /ɪˈnɪʃəlɪ/, Firstly /ˈf3ːstlɪ/

 

Structure: SCV. Initially/Firstly, SVC

33

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Finalmente

 

[TIME LINKER]

Finally/ˈfaɪnəlɪ/, Eventually/ɪˈventʃʊəlɪ/, In the end /ɪn ðə end/

 

Structure: SCV. Finally/Eventually/In the end, SVC

 

Note: In the end means "finally" and at the end means "at the end of something" such as at the end of the queue, at the end of the list, but not finally.

34

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

A partir de entonces

 

"A partir de entonces, el mundo fue suyo para leer"

 

[TIME LINKER]

From that time on /frɒm ðæt taɪm ɒn/

 

"From that time on, the world was hers for the reading"

 

Structure: SVC. From that time on, SVC

35

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Prep. de lugar/tiempo: Después de, detrás de, tras

 

"Susan se fue a la cama después de la cena"

"El vino corriendo tras nosotros"

 

Nota: después de eso. "Se casó cuando tenía 40 años. Después de eso, siempre fue feliz"

 

[TIME LINKER]

After /ˈɑːftəʳ/

 

"Susan went to bed after dinner"

"He came running after us"

 

Note: after that /ˈɑːftəʳ ðæt/ "He got married when he was 40. Atfer that, he was always happy"

Structure (after): SVC after SVC

Structure (after that): SVC. After that, SVC

36

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Prep. de lugar/tiempo: Antes de, delante de

 

"Ellos estarán aquí antes del fin de semana"

"Terminaremos antes de marzo"

"Tu nombre está delante del mío en la lista"

 

Nota: antes de eso. "Se casó cuando tenía 40 años. Antes de eso, siempre había vivido sólo"

 

[TIME LINKER]

Before /bɪˈfɔːʳ/

 

"They will be here before the weekend"

"We'll finish before March"

"Your name is before mine on the list"

 

Note: before that /bɪˈfɔːʳ ðæt/ "He got married when he was 40. Before that, he had always lived alone"

Structure (before): SVC before SVC

Structure (before that): SVC. Before that, SVC

37

 

[LINKER DE TIEMPO]

Prep. de tiempo: Cuando

 

"Iremos cuando lo ordenes"

 

[TIME LINKER]

When /wen/

 

"We'll go when you order it"

 

Structure: SVC when SVC

38

 

[LINKER DE ADICIÓN]

Prep. de circunstancia: Aparte de, excepto por

 

"Fue una linda cena, excepto por algunos incidentes"

"Aparte de cinco coches, él posee un yate"

"Aparte de ese regalo, ¿qué mas reciviste?"

 

[ADDING LINKER]

Apart from /əˈpɑːt frɒm/

 

"It was a nice dinner, apart from several incidents"

"Apart from five cars, he owns a yacht"

"Apart from that present, what else did you get/receive?"

 

Structure (apart from this): SVC. Apart from this, SVC

Structure: SVC, apart from SVC (less common)

39


[LINKER DE ADICIÓN]

Prep. de circunstancia: Además (de), aparte (de)

 

"Además de español, hablo inglés y francés"

"Aparte de su reputación, a él no le queda nada más"

"Es más, es legal hacer esto"

"No sólo no llevaba zapatos; además, iba sin camisa"

 

[ADDING LINKER]

Besides /bɪˈsaɪdz/, in addition (to) /ɪn əˈdɪʃən/, moreover /mɔːˈrəʊvəʳ/, furthermore /ˈf3ːð3ːˈmɔːʳ/, also /ˈɔːlsəʊ/, additionally /əˈdɪʃənlɪ/

 

"Besides Spanish, I speak English and French"

"In addition to his reputation, he has nothing else left"

"Furthermore, it is legal to do this"

"He didn't have his shoes on; moreover, he wasn't wearing a shirt"

 

Note: for "es mas" just "furthermore" is used

Note: To start a sentence, it can be used "Besides this", "In addition to this" and "What is more"

Structure: SVC besides/in addition to/also SVC

Structure: Besides/In addition to/also SVC, SVC

Structure: SVC. Moreover/furthermore/in addition to this/additionally/besides this/what is more, SVC

40

 

[LINKER DE ADICIÓN]

Prep. de circunstancia: Además de + nombre

 

 

"Yo trabajo en esa compañía además de mi hermana"

 

[ADDING LINKER]

As well as /æz|əz wel æz|əz/, as well /wel æz|əz/

 

"I work in that company as well as my sister"

"I work in that company and my sister as well"