Flashcards in Prevention, Ethics and Biostatistics Deck (32):

1

## What are the USPSTF recommendations for cholesterol screening in patients WITHOUT CAD risk factors?

###
-Men begin at 35

-women at 45yo

-screen Q5years

2

## USPSTF recommendations for screening mammograms?

###
-women >50yo

-q2 years

3

## Legal obligation to conform to a reasonable standard of care?

###
Duty of care

4

## Failure to conform to the standard of care?

### Breach of duty

5

## The breach of duty is determined to be the cause of injury/harm?

### Causation

6

## what are the 2 ways that the standard if care can be established in a malpractice case?

###
-expert testimony

-Res ipsa loquitur ("it speaks for itself")

7

## Supervisors are responsible for the actions of their subordinates?

###
Vicarious liability

8

## Incidence

### # new cases/total # of people at risk

9

## Prevalence

###
# of people with disease/total population

10

## Sensitivity

### A/(A+C)

11

## Specificity

### D/(D+B)

12

## PPV

###
A/(A+B)

true positives that tested positive

13

## NPV

###
D/(C+D)

How many true negatives our of all of the negative tested

14

## Do high-prevalence diseases have a high PPV or a high NPV?

### High PPV

15

## Relative Risk

###
RR= (A/(A+B))/(C/(C+D))

-RR>1 --> exposure increases risk of disease

-RR

16

## What study is used to develop relative risk?

### Cohort study

17

## Odds Ratio

###
(AxD)/(CxB)

used to estimate RR in low0-prevalence

18

## What study is used to develop odds ratio?

###
Case-control

19

## Attributable Risk

### (A/(A+B)) - (C/(C+D))

20

## Absolute Risk Reduction

### ARR= (C/(C+D)) -(A/(A+B))

21

## Number needed to treat

### 1/ARR

22

## What is a statistically significant p-value?

23

## What does a lower p-value indicate?

### the more statistically significant the finding it (the less likely it was just due to chance)

24

## Confidence interval

###
CI=mean +/- (Zx SEM)

-For 90%, Z=1.645

-for 95%, Z=1.96

-for 99% CI, Z=2.58

25

## If the CI for an odds ratio or relative risk crosses one, what does this indicate?

### No association between risk and disease

26

## If the CI for a study between 2 treatment groups crosses 0, what does this indicate?

### No actual difference between the 2 treatments

27

## what percentage of the study population falls within 1 SD of the mean? 2 SD? 3 SD?

###
1=68%

2=95%

3=99.7%

28

## What can you identify in case-control studies? What can you calculate?

###
-potential risk factors (these are ALWAYS retrospective)

-Odds ratio

29

## What is a cohort study? What can you calculate?

###
-Follow a cohort that is exposed to a given risk factor to see how many develop a disease (prospective)

-Relative risk

30

## Type of bias? When studying the effects that infection control education has on physicians, both the experimental and the control groups improve their hand hygiene

###
Hawthorne effect (chase behavior when you know you're being observed)

31

## Bias? Sending out a survey to people diagnosed with a fatal illness 5 years after a diagnosis will preferentially sample those will low-grade disease or fewer comorbidities

###
Late look bias

32