Flashcards in Prevention, Ethics and Biostatistics Deck (32)
What are the USPSTF recommendations for cholesterol screening in patients WITHOUT CAD risk factors?
-Men begin at 35
-women at 45yo
USPSTF recommendations for screening mammograms?
Legal obligation to conform to a reasonable standard of care?
Duty of care
Failure to conform to the standard of care?
Breach of duty
The breach of duty is determined to be the cause of injury/harm?
what are the 2 ways that the standard if care can be established in a malpractice case?
-Res ipsa loquitur ("it speaks for itself")
Supervisors are responsible for the actions of their subordinates?
# new cases/total # of people at risk
# of people with disease/total population
true positives that tested positive
How many true negatives our of all of the negative tested
Do high-prevalence diseases have a high PPV or a high NPV?
-RR>1 --> exposure increases risk of disease
What study is used to develop relative risk?
used to estimate RR in low0-prevalence
What study is used to develop odds ratio?
(A/(A+B)) - (C/(C+D))
Absolute Risk Reduction
ARR= (C/(C+D)) -(A/(A+B))
Number needed to treat
What is a statistically significant p-value?
What does a lower p-value indicate?
the more statistically significant the finding it (the less likely it was just due to chance)
CI=mean +/- (Zx SEM)
-For 90%, Z=1.645
-for 95%, Z=1.96
-for 99% CI, Z=2.58
If the CI for an odds ratio or relative risk crosses one, what does this indicate?
No association between risk and disease
If the CI for a study between 2 treatment groups crosses 0, what does this indicate?
No actual difference between the 2 treatments
what percentage of the study population falls within 1 SD of the mean? 2 SD? 3 SD?
What can you identify in case-control studies? What can you calculate?
-potential risk factors (these are ALWAYS retrospective)
What is a cohort study? What can you calculate?
-Follow a cohort that is exposed to a given risk factor to see how many develop a disease (prospective)