Flashcards in Prevention, Ethics and Biostatistics Deck (32)
What are the USPSTF recommendations for cholesterol screening in patients WITHOUT CAD risk factors?
-Men begin at 35
-women at 45yo
USPSTF recommendations for screening mammograms?
Legal obligation to conform to a reasonable standard of care?
Duty of care
Failure to conform to the standard of care?
Breach of duty
The breach of duty is determined to be the cause of injury/harm?
what are the 2 ways that the standard if care can be established in a malpractice case?
-Res ipsa loquitur ("it speaks for itself")
Supervisors are responsible for the actions of their subordinates?
# new cases/total # of people at risk
# of people with disease/total population
true positives that tested positive
How many true negatives our of all of the negative tested
Do high-prevalence diseases have a high PPV or a high NPV?
-RR>1 --> exposure increases risk of disease
What study is used to develop relative risk?
used to estimate RR in low0-prevalence
What study is used to develop odds ratio?
(A/(A+B)) - (C/(C+D))
Absolute Risk Reduction
ARR= (C/(C+D)) -(A/(A+B))
Number needed to treat
What is a statistically significant p-value?
What does a lower p-value indicate?
the more statistically significant the finding it (the less likely it was just due to chance)
CI=mean +/- (Zx SEM)
-For 90%, Z=1.645
-for 95%, Z=1.96
-for 99% CI, Z=2.58
If the CI for an odds ratio or relative risk crosses one, what does this indicate?
No association between risk and disease
If the CI for a study between 2 treatment groups crosses 0, what does this indicate?
No actual difference between the 2 treatments
what percentage of the study population falls within 1 SD of the mean? 2 SD? 3 SD?
What can you identify in case-control studies? What can you calculate?
-potential risk factors (these are ALWAYS retrospective)
What is a cohort study? What can you calculate?
-Follow a cohort that is exposed to a given risk factor to see how many develop a disease (prospective)
Type of bias? When studying the effects that infection control education has on physicians, both the experimental and the control groups improve their hand hygiene
Hawthorne effect (chase behavior when you know you're being observed)
Bias? Sending out a survey to people diagnosed with a fatal illness 5 years after a diagnosis will preferentially sample those will low-grade disease or fewer comorbidities
Late look bias