Prevention, Ethics and Biostatistics Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prevention, Ethics and Biostatistics Deck (32):
1

What are the USPSTF recommendations for cholesterol screening in patients WITHOUT CAD risk factors?

-Men begin at 35
-women at 45yo
-screen Q5years

2

USPSTF recommendations for screening mammograms?

-women >50yo
-q2 years

3

Legal obligation to conform to a reasonable standard of care?

Duty of care

4

Failure to conform to the standard of care?

Breach of duty

5

The breach of duty is determined to be the cause of injury/harm?

Causation

6

what are the 2 ways that the standard if care can be established in a malpractice case?

-expert testimony
-Res ipsa loquitur ("it speaks for itself")

7

Supervisors are responsible for the actions of their subordinates?

Vicarious liability

8

Incidence

# new cases/total # of people at risk

9

Prevalence

# of people with disease/total population

10

Sensitivity

A/(A+C)

11

Specificity

D/(D+B)

12

PPV

A/(A+B)

true positives that tested positive

13

NPV

D/(C+D)

How many true negatives our of all of the negative tested

14

Do high-prevalence diseases have a high PPV or a high NPV?

High PPV

15

Relative Risk

RR= (A/(A+B))/(C/(C+D))


-RR>1 --> exposure increases risk of disease
-RR

16

What study is used to develop relative risk?

Cohort study

17

Odds Ratio

(AxD)/(CxB)

used to estimate RR in low0-prevalence

18

What study is used to develop odds ratio?

Case-control

19

Attributable Risk

(A/(A+B)) - (C/(C+D))

20

Absolute Risk Reduction

ARR= (C/(C+D)) -(A/(A+B))

21

Number needed to treat

1/ARR

22

What is a statistically significant p-value?

23

What does a lower p-value indicate?

the more statistically significant the finding it (the less likely it was just due to chance)

24

Confidence interval

CI=mean +/- (Zx SEM)

-For 90%, Z=1.645
-for 95%, Z=1.96
-for 99% CI, Z=2.58

25

If the CI for an odds ratio or relative risk crosses one, what does this indicate?

No association between risk and disease

26

If the CI for a study between 2 treatment groups crosses 0, what does this indicate?

No actual difference between the 2 treatments

27

what percentage of the study population falls within 1 SD of the mean? 2 SD? 3 SD?

1=68%
2=95%
3=99.7%

28

What can you identify in case-control studies? What can you calculate?

-potential risk factors (these are ALWAYS retrospective)
-Odds ratio

29

What is a cohort study? What can you calculate?

-Follow a cohort that is exposed to a given risk factor to see how many develop a disease (prospective)
-Relative risk

30

Type of bias? When studying the effects that infection control education has on physicians, both the experimental and the control groups improve their hand hygiene

Hawthorne effect (chase behavior when you know you're being observed)

31

Bias? Sending out a survey to people diagnosed with a fatal illness 5 years after a diagnosis will preferentially sample those will low-grade disease or fewer comorbidities

Late look bias

32

Bias? Sicker patents are preferentially encouraged to enroll in a study

Selection bias