Primary Sources Sessions 1-8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Primary Sources Sessions 1-8 Deck (26):
1

"The White Man's Burden"

- 1899
- Rudyard Kipling
- American colonization of the Philippines
- "moral duty" or obligation to rule over & encourage cultural development

2

"Speech to the North German Regatta Association"

- 1901
- Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany
- "conquered for ourselves a place in the sun"
- wants more land for Germany as other countries have
- planned to develop both industry & agric.

3

"The Benefits of British Rule"

- 1871
- Dadabhai Naoroji
benefits & detriments
- increase in exports, education, loans for transportation
- breach of pledges to give the natives a fair & reasonable share
- morally a blessing, "knife of sugar," misfortune - you do not know our wants

4

"On French Colonial Expansion"

- March 28, 1884
- Jules Ferry
- Speech before the French Chamber of Deputies
- "it is a right for the superior races, because they have a duty. They have the duty to civilize the inferior races."
- economic exploitation
- March 28, 1884
- "it is a right for the superior races, because they have a duty. They have the duty to civilize the inferior races."
- economic exploitation

5

Canadian Expeditionary Force: Selections from My Daily Journal

- 1915-1916
- Private Donald Fraser
- captured the life of a solider in WWI, represents the common's soldiers perspective - social tension (British aristocratic traditions)

6

The Fourteen Points

- 1918
- Woodrow Wilson
- declared that WWI was being fought for a moral cause
- asking for postwar peace in Europe
- Established the "Wilsonian" idealist thinking
- welcomed, but main Allied powers were skeptical ( France, Italy, & GB)

7

Briand- Kellogg Pact

- 1928
- sponsored by France & the US
- strong influence on international law
- international agreement to not use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts"
- fail to abide, forfeit the benefits of the treaty

8

On National Socialism & World Relations

- 1937
- Adolf Hitler
- Challenged Versailles
- Describes communism as a "parasite" "illness" - dehumanize the enemy
- legitimizes his actions through comparison to Spain
- superiority of German people - need to protect

9

The Quarantine Speech

- 1937
- Franklin Delano Roosevelt
- calls for "quarantine of the aggressor nations"
- can no longer be neutral - "no escape through mere isolation"
- put on economic pressure
- peace, "America hates war"

10

The Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact

- Aug 1939
- treaty of non-aggression btwn Germany and the Soviet Union
- neither would ally/aid an enemy of the other
- Broken by Germany invading SU in 1941

11

The Atlantic Charter

- Aug 1941
- defined the Allied goals for the post-war world
- Drafted by US & Britain
- no unfavorable territorial changes, reduction of trade restrictions, secure better social/economic conditions, freedom of the seas
- disarmament of aggressor nations

12

Yalta conference

- Feb 1945
- texts of the agreements
- US, UK, and SU to discuss Europe's post-war reorganization
- agreed upon the unconditional surrender of Nazi Germany, undergo demilitarization, denazification
- French zone of occupation

13

"Hiroshima"

- 1946
- John Hershey
- The New Yorker
- focuses on six witness accounts on the nuclear explosion, few had yet understood the true destruction of the bomb

14

The Long Telegram

- Feb 1946
- George Kennan
- reply to the US Tresury Dept
- dealing with Soviet Communism - "undoubtedly greatest task our diplomacy has ever faced"
- foundation of American Cold War policy
- SU didn't see the possibility for long-term peaceful co-existence w/ the capital world
- perpetual war with capitalism - not representative of Russian people

15

The Novikov Telegram

- Sept. 1946
- a reaction to Kennan's Long Telegram
- sent to Moscow by Soviet Ambassador in Wash

16

"You and the Atom Bomb"

- George Orwell
- Tribune, Oct. 1945
- "permanent state of 'cold war'
- social & political implications of the bomb
- "indefinitely a 'peace that is not peace'

17

Final Communique of the Bandung Conference

- Apr. 1955
- first large scale meeting of Asian & African states
- many newly independent
- underscored the need for developing countries to loosen their economic dependence on leading industrialized nations
- instead helping one another

18

The Stages of Economic Growth

- 1960
- W.W. Rostow
- Five basic stages
- traditional, pre-take-off, take-off, drive to maturity, & age of high mass consumption
- beyond consumption - baby boom

19

Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples

- UN General Assembly
- Dec. 1960
- process of decolonization
- 89 countries in favor
- "right to self-determination"
- "reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights"

20

The North Atlantic Treaty

- signed 4/4, 1949
- established NATO
- collective defense
- 12 founding countries, 16 joined later
- Article 5 - "an armed attack against one... considered an attack against them all"
- only evoked once -9/11/01
- created w/ an armed attack by the SU against Western Europe in mind

21

Brandt Ostpolitik

- refers to the normalization of relations btwn FRG (West Germany) & Eastern Europe, especially GDR (East Germany) beginning in 1969
- Written 1971
- Brandt - chancellor of the FRG
-

22

Year of Europe

- 1973
- Henry Kissinger
- "the era that was shaped by decisions of a generation ago is ending"
- center of change for the future
- Diplomacy, defense, economic

23

President Kennedy at Independence Hall

- 4 July 1962
- transatlantic link btwn the US & a free, democratic Europe to be strengthened

24

Memorandum to President Roosevelt

- Niels Bohr
- July 1944
- attempt to change FDR & Churchill's stance on sharing nuclear information
- must prepare for nuclear future

25

General Advisory's Committee's Majority & Minority Reports on Building the H-Bomb

- Oct. 30, 1949
- USSR tested its first A-bomb (Aug 1949)
- Wash D.C.
- Both US & USSR have retaliation ability

26

"Mutual Deterrence" Speech

- Sect. of Defense Robert McNamara
- San Fran, Sept. 18, 1967
- if the Soviets knew that attacking the US would guarantee the equivalent destruction of the USSR, Soviets would be unlikely to attack