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Flashcards in Session 7 Deck (59):

Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties (SALT)

- 1972 (I), 1979 (II)
- Agreement between the US & the Soviet Union for control of certain nuclear weapons



- term meaning the reduction of tensions between states
- often refers to the superpower diplomacy btwn Nixon's inauguration and the Senate's refusal to ratify II in 1980


Sino-Soviet Split

- process whereby China and the Soviet Union became alienated from each other
- late 1950s - early 1960s
- destroyed the myth of a communist monolith, new diplomatic opportunities


People's Republic of China (PRC)

- Came into existence in 1949 under Mao Zedong
- official name for mainland China


Third World

- states that were part of neither the developed capitalist world nor the communist bloc
- Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and South-East Asia


Conference on Security & Co-Operation in Europe (CSCE)

- 1975, signed in Finland by 35 countries, including Soviet Union & US
- protected human rights, co-operation in economic, social & cultural progress
- Succeed by OSCE in 1990 - 55 countries



- territories administered by an imperial state without full annexation taking place
- Delegated powers typically remain in the hands of a local ruler



- Cuban revolutionaries under Fidel Castro's leadership
- 1959 - took power from the Batista regime


Bay of Pigs

- 17 April 1961 - unsuccessful invasion of Cuba by Cuban exiles opposed to the Castro regime
- Support of the US government, CIA heavily involved
- By 4/20, most exiles were killed or captured
- First major foreign policy act by the Kennedy administration, provoked anti-American demonstrations in Latin America & Europe


U-2 Spy Planes

- high-altitude aircraft used to fly over Soviet & other hostile territories
- Spotted the ballistic missile sites under construction in Cuba - formed ExCom to discuss the crisis situation
- Kennedy announced publicly on Oct 22, 1962


Inter-continental ballistic missiles (ICBMs)

- Any supersonic missile, range over 6,500 km
- Soviet-American SALT I - agreed on number each side could have


Removal of the Missiles

27 Oct 1962 - agreement that Soviet missiles would be removed from Cuba and US would remove theirs from Turkey


Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD)

- an American doctrine of reciprocal deterrence resting on the United States and Soviet Union each being able to inflict unacceptable damage on the other in retaliation for a nuclear attack


Limited Test Ban Treaty

- 1963, signed by Britain, the Soviet Union and the US
- committing to halt atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons - 96 additional nations signed


Massive retaliation

- a strategy of military counter-attack prevalent in the US during the Eisenhower administration
- the US threatened to react to any type of military offensive by the Soviets or the Chinese with the use of nuclear weapons
- Began to lose credibility as the Soviets developed nuclear capability in the late 1950s


German Democratic Republic (GDR)

- Created 1949, former Soviet occupation zone (East Germany)
- Collapsed 1989, merged in 1990 with FRG



- West German policy towards the Soviet Union & Eastern Europe in the 1960s & 1970s - Brandt
- aimed at reducing tensions with the ultimate hope of negotiating the peaceful unification of Germany


Peaceful co-existence

- coined by Trotsky
- condition when there are pacific relations between states with differing social systems & competition takes place in fields other than war
- vital to Soviet diplomacy after Stalin's death


Prague Spring

- brief period of liberal reforms attempted by the government of Dubcek in 1968
- period ended with the invasion by Soviet-led Warsaw Pact military forces


Brezhnev Doctrine

- Nov 1968
- Affirming the right of the Soviet Union to intervene in the affairs of communist countries in order to protect communism


Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty

- An agreement between the US and the USSR signed on 26 May 1972
- limited number of ABM deployment areas, launchers & interceptors



- The Afrikaans word for racial segregation
- 1948-1990 - was the ideology of the Nationalist Party in South Africa



- term used for the Muslim guerillas who fought against the Soviets in Afghanistan in 1979-89
- US was a major supported of the Islamist rebels, provide major assistance


League of Nations

- Established 1919
- Promote international peace through collective security
- Compromised by absence of US
- Dissolved 1946


Collective security

Maintaining peace by mobilizing international opinion to condemn agression


United Nations (UN)

- Established after WWII (1945)
- Replaced League of Nations, grown to 192 countries


European Economy Community (EEC)

- 1958 - through the Treaty of Rome
- "Common Market" - Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, & West Germany
- most successful of several aimed at the development of economic, social & political integration - union
- Evolved in the EC, then the EU


Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)

- 1967, Echoed the EEC
- Bringing economic & political union
- Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, & Thailand


European Union (EU)

- 1992 in Maastricht, signing of the Treaty on European Union (TEU)
- In addition to EC, two-intergovernmental "pillars"
- One dealing w/ common foreign & security policy
- One w/ legal affairs
- 12 nations to 27 in 2007
- Croatia joined in 2013, total now 28



- imperial power gives up its formal authority over its colonies
- Decline of European power, pooling of resources


Marshall Plan

- Officially the European Recovery Plan (ERP)
- Initiated by Secretary of State - George Marshall's speech, June 5th 1947
- Participating countries received more than $12 billion in aid (1948-1951)
- Intended to provide stimulus for breaking down tariff barriers within Europe


European Coal & Steel Community (ECSC)

- 1952, Treaty of Paris (Schuman Plan)
- Pledged to pool their coal and steel resources
- Unified market, lifting restrictions
- Essential for reconstruction
- Authored by Jean Monnet & 1st president of ECSC's High Authority


Federal republic of Germany (FRG)

- 1949 - German state created out of the former American, British and French occupation zones (West Germany)


North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

- 1949 (4/4), signed by Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the US
- Greece & Turkey entered alliance in 1952
- FRG in 1955, Spain full-member in 1982
- 1999 - Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland


Bretton Woods

- Site of 1944 inter-Allied conference
- Post-war international economic order
- Established the IMF & the World Bank
- Convertibility of the dollar into gold - devaluation in 1971 --> moved to a system of floating exchange rates


South-East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)

- 1954 - Alliance between Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the US
- Created after Geneva conference on Indochina to prevent further communist gains in the region
- Little use in Vietnam War, disbanded 1977


North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

- 1992 - Canada, Mexico & the US
- establish free-trade zone, 1994



- Southern Cone Common Market
- 1991, increase economic co-operation in eastern part of South America


What kind of periodization can be used for the first three decades of the Cold War in Europe?

a. 1947-1956: The consolidation of the partition of Europe
i. Bipolar divide took shape
b. 1956-1968: bipolar freezing and first defections
c. 1968-…: détente
i. Characterized by a relaxation of the tensions between the two camps
ii. Europe – never ended, or only ended with the end of the Cold War
1. Crisis in Ukraine – origins of the relationship between Russia and Germany can be traced to 1968/1970s


Division and Consolidation: The “Western Bloc”

a. The North Atlantic Alliance (NATO): how to keep the US in Europe
b. Division of Germany
c. Post-Korean War: rearmament + debate on burden-sharing and military integration of West Germany (FRG)


What were, after WWII, the obstacles to a possible military alliance between the United States and its European allies?

i. US Congress and Public Opinion
ii. European states (fear of US dominance; security = sovereignty)
iii. European public opinion (legacy of war, pacifism and anti-Germanism)


What were the main issues discussed during the Washington talks that led to the Atlantic Pact?

- Washington Talks, North Atlantic Treaty, & Atlantic Alliance


Washington Talks

(July 1948 – March 1949)
i. Nature of Alliance & Sovereignty
ii. US commitment
1. Many isolationist were hostile – could mean loss of sovereignty
iii. Membership (France, Northern African territories? Italy? Portugal?):
1. What is “North Atlantic” (geographically, but also culturally & politically?)
2. Who should be a member of such an alliance?
3. France insisted on including its Northern African territories
iv. Truman – hostile to the inclusion of Italy


North Atlantic Treaty

i. Members: Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, and the United States
ii. Article 5
1. “The parties agree that an armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America shall be considered an attack against them all…”
a. Only invoked once
i. After 9/11
iii. First permanent alliance after 1778 for the United States
iv. Greece and Turkey joined in 1952; bilateral security treaty between Franco’s Spain and the US in 1953 [article 10]


Atlantic Alliance

i. “to keep the Russians out, the Americans in, and the Germans down”
1. Lord Ismay, First NATO Secretary General


What were the Main consequences of the division of Germany?

a. Two German states were established in 1945
b. Partition of Germany
i. Solution of problem & stabilization of Europe
ii. Historical injustice
iii. Berlin [solved with wall]
iv. Several hundred people were killed in their attempt to cross the wall


Why was the process of rearmament (and its extension to the FRG) so controversial?

a. First Half of the 1950s: Western Security System
i. US pressures for burden-sharing and rearmament of West Germany
ii. Western European resistance
iii. Failure of the EDC
1. EDC – European Defense Community
2. Italian and French never ratified the treaty
3. Crucial attempt to integrate West Germany by controlling West Germany, but ultimate failure
a. Opposed by many
iv. Final inclusion of the FRG within NATO


How did the Eastern/Soviet bloc take shape in the early Cold War years?

a. Division and Consolidation: The “Eastern bloc”
i. Fluid/undefined situation, but process of “Sovietization/Stalinization” & Soviet sphere of influences: “Little Stalins”
ii. Industrialization and urbanization (cheap labour more than productivity)
1. GDP Growth – 1950 – 1990
iii. Creation of Cominforn: mobilization vs. Marshall Plan and US influence
1. Andrei Zhdanov, Report on the International Situation to the Cominforn
iv. German dilemma & Soviet proposals for neutralization
1. Limited military potential, reunited


Why was 1955-1956 a crucial turning point?

a. FRG admitted to NATO via WEU
b. Warsaw Pact
c. Austrian peace treaty
i. End of occupation of Austria – had been divided into four zones of occupation, became neutral
d. Admission to the UN of countries defeated in WWII
e. Budapest & crystallization of European bipolar division
i. Uprising in Budapest – terrifying for the Soviets
1. Wanted a sphere of influence
2. Losing Hungary – could ignite a process of countries leaving
a. Decided to intervene in Budapest
b. Revealed the brutality of Soviet control
3. Budapest symbolized the geopolitical division of Europe
a. Can’t modify without


1956-1968: Geopolitical Freezing and Defections: The Western Camp

a. Possible “nuclearization” of Germany
b. Hierarchies and nuclear privileges within the Alliance
c. Transatlantic trade and monetary disputes
d. Main issue: credibility of US commitment
e. France’s partial defection


What were the dilemmas posed by the US nuclear arsenal to the European allies of the US?

a. US Nuclear Arsenal and Europe
i. Issue of credibility (first strike)
ii. What happened when USSR is able to retaliate?
iii. Becomes question of national prestige
1. De Gaulle
iv. Gaullist challenge
b. De Gaulle’s Challenge: Dreams of Military Independence
i. 1959: France withdraws its Mediterranean fleet from NATO command
ii. Accelerates nuclear program (17 nuclear tests in the Algerian Sahara between 1960 and 1966; ca. 200 tests in Polinesia from 1966 to 1996)
iii. Does not ratify Test Ban Treaty in 1963
iv. 1966: withdrawal from NATO integrated structure (France no longer assigns its forces to NATO; headquarters had to be transferred from Paris to Brussels)


1956 – 1968: Geopolitical Freezing and Defections: The Eastern Camp

a. Original flaw of the “Soviet empire”: lack of consensus and deficit of hegemony
b. Economic growth
c. Defections of Romania & Albania
d. Czechoslovakia 1968 & Brezhnev doctrine
i. Military intervention in Prague – limits imposed by the Soviet Union


Why were the Cold War and the process of European integration strictly intertwined?

a. European Integration and the Cold War
i. Role of the United States
ii. Tool for political rehabilitation of Germany
iii. Instrument used by France for controlling/exploiting German power
iv. Impact of Cold War divisions on EEC membership
v. Soviet/communist threat as a key driver of Western European integration


What were the main “non-Cold War drivers” in the process of European integration?

a. Economic objectives (West German market, capital goods and, initially, coal)
b. Social goals
c. Different, supranational, level of protectionism


Treaty of Rome

a. EEC – European Economic Community
i. Before EU
- 1957


EEC Economic Principles

a. Free trade
i. Within the EEC
b. Enlarged market
c. Economies of scale
d. Comparative advantages
e. As a “Customs Union”
i. Progressive elimination of internal tariffs by 1969 – Formatino of a free trade area (FTA) for the EEC with the gradual elimination of tariffs, quotas and other barriers to trade among members
ii. Common external tariffs of 15 percent (members’ average)
iii. Elimination of tariffs would create trade (trade creation); imposition of external tariffs would reduce dependence from the United States, Soviet Union, etc. (trade diversion)


What were the main factors behind the bipolar détente of the late 1960s/early 1970s?

a. Bipolar Détente
i. Factors
1. Strategic interdependence
a. Mutually vulnerable
2. End of the ideological peak of the Cold War
3. Common geopolitical goals
b. Main Achievements of Détente
i. Treaties on non-proliferation (1963 & 1968)
ii. Salt and ABM Treaties (1972)
iii. Treaty on the Basic Principles
iv. Intensification of Trade and Cultural Exchanges
v. US-Chinese


What was the “Ostpolitik”?

a. Consequence of a policy shift in West Germany
b. Willy Brandt – main actor
i. Mayor (Burgermeister) of West Berlin (1957 – 1966)
ii. Foreign Minister (and vice-chanecellor) (1966-1969)
iii. Chancellor, 1969-1974
iv. Apologized for the Holocaust – no other statesman had done
1. Knelt at the monument to the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising
c. Europe’s Détente: The Ostpolitik
i. Rejection of Hallstein doctrine (FRG would not establish or maintain diplomatic relations with any state that recognized the GDR, except USSR)
ii. Opening to the East:
1. 1970: Treaty of Moscow (recognition of borders)
2. 1970: Treaty of Warsaw (recognition of the Oder-Neisse line)
3. 1972: Basic Treaty with GDR (formal recognition; strong opposition of the CDU)


What were the objectives of Ostpolitiks?

a. Abandonment of Adenauer’s rigidity (re-unification through confrontation and victory)
b. Rapprochement with GDR and Soviet Bloc
c. Trade, Cultural and financial interdependence (on the long term Soviet bloc more and more dependent)