Session 1 - Imperialism Flashcards Preview

IR 20th Century History > Session 1 - Imperialism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Session 1 - Imperialism Deck (71):
0

New imperialism

- Europe dominated the globe
- Population, machine power, technical edge
- Stability at home
- scramble for Africa

1

Isolationism

- Isolating one's country, avoiding foreign entanglement
- popular with US in the interwar period

2

Great Powers

France, Britain, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia
- Power: size of pop, territory, finance, industrial output
- "courtesy power" - Italy & US

3

Monroe Doctrine

-1823, US would not tolerate European intervention in Western affairs

5

Great Powers

- States capable of shared responsibility for the management of the international order
- Based on military & economic influence
- Britain, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Russia

6

Isolationism

- policy of isolating one's country by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities
- popular in the US during the interwar years

7

Monroe Doctrine

- 1823, by President Monroe
- Announced that the US would not tolerate intervention by the European Powers in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere

8

Self-determination

- idea that each national group has the right to establish its own national state
- Associated with Wilsonian internationalism, key driving force in the struggle to end imperialism

9

Concert of Europe

- 19th century European system of regulation of international affairs by the Great Powers
- Balance of power, shared rules of conduct, values, goals, & diplomatic practices between the Great Powers

10

Entente Cordiale

- coined to describe the Anglo-French rapprochement that took place in 1904, used for general relationship in 20th century

11

Reichstag

- lower house of the German parliament during the Wilhelmine & Weimar periods

12

Schlieffen Plan

- German pre-1914 plan for pre-emptive military offensive against France
- Would involve troops passing through neutral Belgium

13

Young Turks

- 1908, young army officers who pushed the Ottoman Empire towards reformist policies & a more overtly Turkish nationalist stance

14

Bolsheviks

- 1903 - a faction led by Lenin within the Russian Social Democratic Party (originally) - became separate party
- led October 1917 revolution in Russia
- After, used to refer to Soviet government/communists in general

15

Fourteen Points

- Speech by Woodrow Wilson, Jan 8th, 1918
- Post-war world vision
- Open diplomacy, self-determination, & a post-war international organization
- Reformist reply to Bolsheviks' peace manifesto

16

Weimar Republic

- German parliamentary democracy that existed between Nov 1918 and Jan 1933
- Never won the loyalty of the majority

17

Danzig

- Important port city in the Baltic Sea
- 1919 - made it a "free city" under the League of Nations - give Poland free access to the sea
- Return of the city to German sovereignty was a key issue for German nationalists btwn wars
- The Danzig question was exploited by Hitler as a pretext for attack on Poland in 1939

18

Versailles Treaty

1919 - ended the Allied state of hostilities with Germany
- German territorial losses, disarmament, war guilt clause & demand that reparations be paid

19

Anschluss

- political union of Germany & Austria
- specifically prohibited under the Versailles Treaty
- Carried out by Hitler in 1938 w/o resistance

20

Sudentenland

- Area of Bohemia mainly inhabited by ethnic Germans
- 1919 - Czech side of the Czech-German border
- 1938 - led to an international crisis ending in the infamous Munich Agreement

21

Locarno Treaties

- October 1925, Switzerland
- Rhineland Pact - France, Germany & Belgium - demilitarization of the Rhineland, turning point in international affairs

22

Kellogg-Briand Pact

- 27 August 1928
- US Secretary of State - Frank Kellogg, suggested that the two states should agree to renounce war
- Others agreed to join the US & France (65 total)
- Often seen as an empty gesture indicative of the idealistic internationalism of the inter-war years

23

Young Plan

- 1929 financial scheme, by American businessman
- Informally agreed upon that reparations would be scaled back further if the former European Allies secured a reduction in debt repayments to the US
- German, French & British delegates

24

Nazi Party

- National Socialist German Workers Party
- Oct 1918 - founded to oppose capitalism & Marxism, more notorious title began in 1920 - one year later Hitler became the leader

25

Protectionism

- regulating imports through high tariffs with the purpose of shielding domestic industries from foreign competition

26

Manchuria

- the 3 north-eastern provinces of China
- 1932-1945 - became Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo

27

Pacific War

- 1941-1945 - Allied war against Japan

28

pan-Asianism

- idea that Asia should free itself from Western imperialism, unite in a common effort to modernize
- Mainly from Japan before 1945

29

Open door

- maintenance in a certain territory of equal commercial & industrial rights for the nationals of all countries
- By the US, 19th century for safeguarding American economic interests in China

30

mandates

- the colonial territories of Germany & the Ottoman Empire
- entrusted to Britain, France, Japan, Australia, and South Africa by League of Nations

31

Comintern

- Communist or Third International founded in Moscow in 1919 as an organization to direct & support the activities of the Communist parties outside Russia
- Abolished in 1943 - short-lived effort by Stalin to reassure Britain and the US that the Soviet Union no longer sought to export Marxism-Leninism

32

Guomindang (GMD)

- the Chinese Nationalist party founded in 1913 by Sun Yatsen
- 1928 - came into power, initiated a modernization program before leading the country into war against Japan in 1937
- Lost control in 1949 due to communist victory
- Controlled Taiwan from 1949-2000

33

autarky

- a policy that aims at achieving national economic self-sufficiency
- commonly associated with the economic programs espoused by Germany, Italy & Japan in 1930s & 40s

34

Axis Powers

- 1936 - Fascist Italy & Nazi Germany
- reinforced by the Pact of Steel - May 1939
- Often referred to relationship of Germany, Italy, & Japan
- Tripartite Pact - Sept 1940

35

Dominions

- a completely self-governing colony which is freely associated with the mother country
- British Empire: Australia, Canada, Irish Free State (1922-49), New Zealand, South Africa

36

Princely States

- the states in British India that remained formally under the control of local rulers rather than British administration (i.e. Hyderabad and Kashmir)

37

Khalifat Movement

- the protest movement that swept through the Islamic world from 1919 to 1923
- In opposition to the harsh treatment meted out by the Christian powers to the Ottoman sultan, who as Caliph was one of the protectors of the faith

38

pan-Arabism

- movement for Arab unity as manifested in the Fertile Crescent & Greater Syria schemes
- Attempted unification of Egypt, Syria, and Libya

39

Suez Crisis

- Failed attempt by Britain & France in 1956 to take advantage of a war between Israel & Egypt by seizing control of the Suez Canal and bringing down the government of Gamal Abdel Nasser
- Often taken as a symbol of the collapse of European imperialism & the rise of the Third World

40

import substitution

- process whereby a state attempts to achieve economic growth by raising protective tariffs to keep out imports & replacing them with indigenously produced goods

41

Atlantic Charter

- Signed by Roosevelt & Churchill, Aug 1941
- Committed US & Britain to support democracy, self-determination & the liberalization of international trade

42

What is an empire?

- Stephen Howe - "a large, composite, multi-ethnic or multi-national political unit, usually created by conquest, & divided between a dominant center and subordinate, sometimes far distant, peripheries"
- Michael Doye, "A relationship, formal or informal, in which one state controls the effective political sovereignty of another political society"

43

Imperial features

- dominance of one over another
- cultural & political hierarchies
- domination + direct & indirect control

44

Pre-19th Century Maritime Empires

- Portugal
- Dutch
- French
- Spanish

45

Pre-19th Century Land Empire

- Russia, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman
- Hapsburg Monarchy - very multinational
- U.S. - imperialism w/o colonies

46

Imperialism of the late 19th century

- nation-state, age of "territoriality"
- European geopolitical stability & balance of power - look elsewhere to expand
- technological innovations & greater mobility
- capitalism & industrialization

47

Power

- how exploitable this territory is & your ability to exploit

48

Drivers of New Imperial Race

- the security dimension
- economics
- ideology

49

Driver - security

- global projection of European equilibrium
- security dilemma & vicious cycle - victory for one was an automatic loss for the others
- naval competition

50

The Influence of Sea Power Upon History

- 1890
- Alfred Mahan
- if you control the sea routes, you control the world

51

Driver - economics

- search for raw materials
- surplus of capital & goods
- specific interests - "imperial elites"
- colonial elites
- proto-globalization - increased global trade

52

Driver - ideology

- race - entitled to conquer others
- prestige ("place in the sun")
- mission & Christianity

53

Driver - domestic factors

- nationalism
- imperial elites
- political & electoral advantages

54

Main imperial theaters?

- Africa
- The Far East
- The Middle East

55

Bernhard Von Bulow

- 1897
- demand our place in the sun
- metaphor used to justify imperialism

56

Africa

- divided among many European powers (1875-1900)
- Scramble for Africa & Conference of Berlin (1885)- regulate & discipline imperial race in Africa
- principle of effective occupation
- free trade in the Congo Basin
- free navigation

57

The Far East

- China - conflict/collaboration among Great Powers - Open Door Notes
- Collapse of China

58

The Middle East

- Gradual implosion of the Ottoman Empire
- Connection to Northern Africa
- Anglo-Russian competition

59

Imperial Conflicts I: Franco-German Competition in North Africa

- 1905: I Moroccan Crisis: Germany Isolated
- 1911: II Moroccan Crisis: Morocco became a French protectorate

60

Imperial Conflicts II: German-British Competition in South Africa

- German hope to partition the Portuguese colonies

61

Imperial Conflicts III: Anglo-French Competition in Eastern Africa

- Fashoda, 1898
- French attempt to control the Nile River & Sudan

62

Imperial Conflicts IV: Anglo-Russian Competition in Perisa

- Britain: Afghanistan & Pakistan to protect India from Russia
- Division in spheres of influence

63

Imperial Conflicts V: Austrian-Serb Competition in the Balkans

- 1908: annexation of Bosnia

64

Imperial Legacies

- Crisis in European balance of power & rigid polarity in terms of alliances
- global hierarchies of power

65

Historiography: Two Dualities

- Internal & external - European/colonial, core/periphery, developed/underdeveloped

66

John Hobson

- imperialism as an outlet for surplus

67

Lenin

- core-periphery model, highest/latest stage of capitalism
- role of financial capital benefitting from imperialism

68

John Gallagher & Ronald Robinson

- importance of local collaborators, strategic/geopolitical considerations before economic ones

69

Immanuel Wallerstein

- world-system theory, full integration & disappearance of core-periphery duality

70

Edward Said

- post-colonial studies, imperial discourse, subordinate subjects
- Europe's dependence on those whom it subordinated

71

Samir Amin

- Eurocentrism, emphasis on proto-capitalist & non-European regional systems