What are the 3 stages of setting a product architecture?
The arrangement of functional elements
The mapping from functional elements to physical components
The specification of the interfaces among physical components
What is a coupled interface?
One where changing one component necessitates a change in the other component
What are the 4 fundamental types of product architecture?
- Integral - Self-contained, parts are interrelated, tightly coupled (not modular, others are all modular)
- Slot - Modules have different interfaces against the system
- Bus - All components fit into a central interface
- Sectional - Complete modularity, components can be added or removed freely
What does a product architecture do?
it defines how functional roles are assigned to physical components
Name 5 features of modular design
- Each modular implements one/few functional elements
- Interfaces are de-coupled
- Changes to modules do not require changes to others
- Modules can be designed independently
- Product ranges cost less
- Enables variety and change
Name 5 features of integral design
- Single module implements many functions
- Boundaries are coupled
- Modifications result in changes to other parts
- Modules must be designed in collaboration
- Individual products cost less
- Enables optimation
Types of modularity
- Slot - each module has different interface with the overall system eg. ports at back of dvd player
- Bus modularity- all modules have a common interface eg. usb
- Sectional modularity- standard interfaces but no main module eg lego
What are 2 main design goals with regards to increasing modularity?
Maximise Product variety
Minimise manufacturing complexity
3 steps to modularise an architecture:
- Start with a schematic overview of the product
- Select the desired level of product variety
- Create modules by clusterin elements of the schematic overview
What is the technology S-curve?
A model of innovation modelled by a sigmoidal function, with adoption on the y axis, and time on the x axis, with the stages shown, in order being Innovation, Improvement/growth, maturity.
How does the product architecture tend to change with progress along the S curve?
Near the start, the new product will focus on innovation, with no dominant architecture
As the product matures, the customer and designer know what they want so dominant architecture emerges
When the product is matured, there will be a focus on process, reliability, consistency, and reuse