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Flashcards in Project Management Responsibilities Deck (45)
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What are the 7 main tasks a project manager is responsible for?

1. project planning
2. scheduling
3. monitoring
4. coordination and direction
5. updating documentation
6. closing out the job
7. following up with clients


What is partnering? What are pros? Cons?

It is a method of managing a project in which various stakeholders in the project (such as architect, owner, contractor, and vendors) all participate in the decision-making process.

- can produce closer communication on a project
- can result in shared responsibilities

- day-to-day management can be difficult with so many people


What are the two types of project teams?
Who do they include?
When are they formed?
Who are they formed by?

1. Overall group of people involved in producing the job, of which the architect is only one part.
- include: owner, architect, consultants, and sometimes CM, contractor, major subs
- formed by Owner & Architect: before the project is secured

2. The group of people assembled within the architect's office.
- include: internal staff needed to complete instruments of service.
- formed by Project Manager after the proposal is accepted and contract is signed.


What issues should a Project Manager consider in forming their office team?

1. Type and complexity of the project = any particular experience or expertise needed?

2. Size of the project = how many people are needed and at what level of experience and knowledge?

3. Staff availability = who is already committed to other projects?

4. Experience levels = What tasks does this project require and whose skills and knowledge match those?

5. Billing rates = how can I best balance the project budget with experience and knowledge needed for the job?

6. Personalities = which working relationships in the office are good vs. problematic?


What are the 2 common methods of scheduing design and construction projects?

1. Gantt chart (bar chart)
2. Critical Path Method (CPM)


Float time (in a schedule)

maximum length of time noncritical tasks can be delayed or extended before causing a delay in the overall project


What is a work plan? What is another name for it?

a detailed project schedule that breaks down into its component tasks and assigns staff members and other resources to each task.

Fee Projection. It also details how the fee the firm receives (after deduction for profit, overhead, and other expenses) will be used to pay staff members and cover other costs.


A good work plan includes these 8 items:

1. Scope of services agreement
- drawn directly from O/A agreement
- States what architect is legally required to provide
- important to help know what is excluded so that PM can ask for additional compensation if client requests additional services

2. A breakdown of the services to be provided into phases and individual tasks
- the heart of the work plan

3. Allocation of time and fees to phases and individual tasks

4. time for client reviews and regulatory submissions
- can be problematic since outside architect's control
- client should review and give written approval after each phase of the project (development of the program, schematic design, design development, construction docs)

5. Dependencies

6. Milestones

7. The staff needed to do the work

8. What work will be done by consultants, and what fees and other costs will be associated with their work.


What are three ways to assign fees?

How do you know if a fee is appropriate for a project?

1. bottom-up approach (based on effort & risk)

2. top-down approach (based comparable past projects or rule of thumb gross fee determinate)

3. duration-based analysis (based on the effort will take x # of staff and y weeks to complete)

When the three methods begin to result in the same fee.


Top-down approach

A way to assign fees in which you:
1. estimate the total fee needed to complete the project using rule of thumb and historical data (includes direct & indirect labor, consultants' fees, non-reimbursable expenses, and a contingency),
2. subtract all elements except for direct labor to get the total working fee, and
3. allocate the total working fee to various phases (based on phase percentages, ex. SD = 15%)
4. Divide the phase % by company billable rate to get an estimate for how many hours/week are needed to complete the task. You can then figure out how many people are needed to complete based on 40 hr work weeks.


How are fees estimated?

By using rules of thumb like percentage of construction or per sf based on historical data.


Total working fee

The fee estimate for the direct labor needed to complete the project


What is the by-phase breakdown of total working fee for a typical design-bid-build project?

schematic design = 15%
design development = 20%
construction documents = 40%
bidding = 5%
construction administration = 20%


In the top-down approach, how do you estimate the hours per week needed to complete a task?

(phase %) x (total working fee)
/ (hourly billable rate)


Bottom-up approach

A way to assign fees in which:
- effort associated with each task in each phase for the project
- effort to resolve risks is included.
- often higher than the other methods becuase all effort and risk is considered.


Compensation is based on what three factors? How are each measured?

1. the value of the service
- design preeminence
- project expertise
- quality of service
- project management/ leadership
- unique services

2. the effort required to provide the service
- often measured in amount of time or cost to provide service
- based on scope of services

3. the risks in providing the service:
- client
- project delivery process:
- design-bid-build is typical and lower risk
- fast-track: increased risk and more effort to produce documents during construction
- project-specific risks
- schedule risks (the faster the schedule the more risk involved. Very long/drawing out schedules are also higher risk.)
- Cost


Typical basic services:

schematic design
design development
construction docs
bidding and negotiation
contract administration


Methods of compensation

stipulated sum fee
percentage of construction cost
hourly basis


Stipulated sum
- what is it?
- what is necessary for it?
- how is it estimated?
- how is it invoiced?

- risk-reward opportunity
- clearly defined scope of services is necessary
- can be determined based on anticipated use of hours, percentage of construction cost, or on effort required to produce similar projects in the past.
- invoiced monthly based on a percentage of completion of each phase


Percentage of construction cost
- how is it invoiced?
- what is the risk?

- invoicing is based on estimates of the construction cost and percentage completion of the phase. Fees are adjusted once the construction cost is known.

- risk = volatility of construction cost.
- client might think architect is less inclined to seek economic solutions.
- client might think architect will use expensive materials/solutions to increase the fee
- client may want to know the actual cost up-front


Hourly compensation
- what is it?
- when is it especially useful?

- invoicing for every hour worked on the project
- when scope is unknown


Hourly, Not-to-Exceed
- what is it?
- what are 2 ways in which it can be used?
- when is it especially helpful?

- provides the client a limit of potential costs while offering the potential for lower=than-anticipated fees

It can be used in 2 ways:
1. not-to-exceed is a maximum limit. This allows client to limit their exposure while paying only for the services used.
2. not-to-exceed amount is offered as a limit of exposure that will not be exceeded without prior written approval. This allows the client to know the status of fees as they approach a set limit.

- it is especially helpful when working with a client to determine the scope of a project.


Unit Cost
- what is it?
- when is it often used?

cost of services is defined by a measurable such as area (cost per sf)

often used in services related to interior fit-up of a space.


Duration-based analysis

A way of setting fees based on the durations and staffing required to complete tasks during a phase.


Contingency allowance

A sum included in the construction budget and project budget to cover unpredictable or unforeseen items of work or changes in the work.


What are three types of contingencies that should be considered in the fee planning?

1. A contingency that there is no intention to spend
This may be a way to define the initial 10% profit in a project plan.

2. A contingency that there is intention to spend (about 10% of the fee)
As the work effort is defined in terms of hours per phase per discipline, build a contingency of hours into the plan. These hours will be used to adjust the plan to actual, and to respond to variations in the delivery of the project. 10%t of hours is a good starting point, allowing for 2-4% variances in the planned hours in each phase.

3. a contingency that is there for special situations (about 3% of the fee) Not an intention to spend but in case additional effort is required.


How and when should changes caused by the client or other outside parties be documented?

Changes caused by the client and other outside parties should be documented clearly to identify the scope, schedule, fee, and need for additional service requests.

This should be done immediately upon recognition that an external change has occurred, NOT after considerable rework has been completed giving the impression that the project is proceeding as planned.


Full-wall schedule

A low-tech way to determine schedule by bringing the entire team into one room (including client), assigning tasks to different team members, and having each member show how long they think their task will take.
- weeks shown horizontally at top
- team members shown vertically on left side
- tasks on 3x5 notecards are placed on wall showing who will complete that task and when it will be completed.


7 tools a PM can use for coordination:

- project notebook
- project management software
- project websites
- checklists
- weekly project meetings
- consultant drawing exchange
- building information modeling


What are the two teams that a PM needs to coordinate?

1. internal design team (office staff)
2. external team (consultant coordination)