Flashcards in Proteins Deck (67)
What happens if the body lacks essential amino acids?
Body breaks down
What does it mean for a protein to be conditionally essential?
Demand exceeds what can be produced
True or false: functionally, all amino acids are essential
What are the 9 essential amino acids?
PVT TIM HALL
Gastrointestinal peptides are considered what?
Hormones or chemical neurotransmitters
What are the two types of bonds that peptides can undergo?
Peptide bonds or disulfide
What are the 5 stages of peptide synthesis?
1. Amino acid activation
2. Initiation of polypeptide
What is the cause of cystinuria? Which AAs are involved?
Defect in cystine transporter for COAL (cystine, ornithin, R, Y)
What is Hartnup disease?
Deficiency of transporter for W
causing MR and a rash
True or false: protein turnover only occurs with muscle breakdown
False-always happening to maintain AA pool
Which are degraded faster: hormones or structural proteins?
True or false: under normal conditions, Nitrogen = nitrogen out
When do proteins begin to be digested?
Stomach acid and proteases denatures
The majority of proteins are broken down where?
What activates pepsinogen to pepsin?
Where does pepsin work?
What activates trypsinogen?
Endopeptidases in the intestines
What activates chymotrypsin?
Trypsin in the intestines
What activated procarboxypeptidase?
What is the enzyme in infants that works ion proteins in the mouth?
What are the 8 common food allergies?
What is the hypothesis for food allergies?
Intact proteins may be absorbed through leaky cell junctions in the small intestines
True or false: some AA are used in gluconeogenesis
What are the two AA that act as Nitrogen transporters?
Alanine and glutamine
What is the only AA that is completely oxidized in the muscle?
Which AA rises in the blood during fasting?
Leucine is used in the TCA how?
Converted to acetyl coA
The kidneys preferentially produces which AAs? (3)
The kidneys convert which two amino acids?
F to Y
G to S