PSYCH Chapter 12: Social Psychology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSYCH Chapter 12: Social Psychology Deck (50):
1

1. In Asch’s study, conformity decreased when:

A. at least four confederates were present.

B. at least one confederate agreed with the participant.

C. the participant was a male.

D. the participant had high self-esteem.

B. at least one confederate agreed with the participant.

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2. Which of the following would not be effective in minimizing groupthink?

A. Caroline wants her team to openly vote by a show of hands either for or against her business plan.

B. Karen openly invites input from all team members and even those outside her team.

C. Annina reminds her team that everyone will be held responsible for the ultimate decision of her group.

D. Juanita works hard to remain impartial to all ideas no matter what they are.

A. Caroline wants her team to openly vote by a show of hands either for or against her business plan.

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3. On of the keys to deindividuation is:

A. Group polarization

B. Group protection

C. Conformity

D. Anonymity

D. Anonymity

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4. Conner needs just $20 more to go out with his friends. He asks his mother for $50 but she tells him he can have $30 instead. In the end, Conner ended up with $10 more than he originally planned. What technique did Conner use?

A. Foot-in-the-door technique

B. Door-in-the-face technique

C. Lowball technique

D. Planned obedience

B. Door-in-the-face technique

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5. Follow-up research to Stanley Milgram’s original study has found that __________ of “teachers” will deliver shocks up to the point of being lethatl.

A. Less than 30 percent

B. 40 percent

C. Over 60 percent

D. Over 80 percent

C. Over 60 percent

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1. Studies have found that attitudes are primarily the result of:

A. Heredity

B. Hormonal chemistry

C. Traumatic incidents

D. Learned behavior

D. Learned behavior

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2. Which of the following represents the affective component of an attitude?

A. “I love to go to the clubs---it makes me so happy!”

B. “Tonight, we’re going to that new club downtown.”

C. “It is interesting to watch people when I’m out at a club.”

D. “I’m going to wear a new outfit to the club tonight.”

A. “I love to go to the clubs---it makes me so happy!’

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3. Erin hates snakes, even though she has never been bitten or been close to one. She developed her feelings by seeing how scared her mother was when she came across them in the garden, or even when watching a movie or television show where there was a snake. Erin’s attitude toward snakes was most likely acquired through:

A. Direct contact

B. Direct instruction

C. Interaction with others

D. Vicarious conditioning

D. Vicarious conditioning

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4. As an attorney, you always recommend to your clients that they dress up in professional clothes for their day in court. What aspect of persuasion are you focusing upon?

A. The source

B. The message

C. The audience

D. The media

A. The source

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5. One of your friends tells you, “I didn’t like the environmental-awareness presentation today. First of all it was too long, not to mention the person that gave it was drinking out of a polystyrene cup and drove away in a huge SUV.” What kind of processing might your friend be using?

A. Central-route processing

B. Peripheral-route processing

C. Cognitive-route processing

D. Visual-route processing

B. Peripheral-route processing

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6. In the famous Festinger experiment, participants were paid either $1 or $20 to lie to a woman in the waiting room about how interesting a task really was. The participants who convinced themselves that the task really was fun were the ones who were:

A. Paid immediately

B. Paid after one day

C. Paid only $1

D. Paid $20

C. Paid only $1

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1. If you were to describe impression formation in just one word, what would that be?

A. Control

B. Prediction

C. Feelings

D. Communication

B. Prediction

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2. According to the phenomenon known as social categorization, what is most influential in helping us form an attitude about someone or something?

A. Those things that happen first, also known as the primacy effect

B. Those things that happen last, also known as the recency effect

C. Those things that happen in the middle

D. That which is repeated several times

A. Those things that happen first, also known as the primacy effect

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3. Kohanna thinks that everyone who smiles must always be happy and those people who are quiet must be naturally shy. Such assumptions are the bases for

A. Stereotypes

B. Implicit personality theory

C. Attribution theory

D. Attitudes

B. Implicit personality theory

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4. Caleb almost always shows up late for work. His friends attribute this to Caleb’s laziness. This is an example of a __________ cause.

A. Situational

B. Dispositional

C. Dispensational

D. Superficial

B. Dispositional

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5. How might someone who unknowingly is committing the fundamental attribution error explain Stanley Milgram’s obedience study?

A. Subjects in that study were highly influenced by the power of Milgram and his team

B. Subjects in that study desired a high degree of positive reinforcement

C. Subjects in that study wanted to be part of Milgram’s group

D. Subjects in that study must have been the kind of people that like to hurt others

D. Subjects in that study must have been the kind of people that like to hurt others

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1. Prejudice is about __________ while discrimination is about __________.

A. Beliefs; perceptions

B. Perceptions; beliefs

C. Behavior; attitudes

D. Attitudes; behavior

D. Attitudes; behavior

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2. Jewell and Amie became friends while taking an evening class at the local community college. Jewell was later horrified to find out that Amie was actually a teacher at the college. Subsequently, Jewell stopped talking with Amie, thus ending their friendship. What theory of prejudice and discrimination might this be an example of?

A. Stereotype vulnerability theory

B. In-group/out-group theory

C. Realistic conflict theory

D. Social cognitive theory

B. In-group/out-group theory

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3. In teacher Jane Elliot’s classic study, the most startling finding was that the

A. In-group was kinder to the out-group

B. Out-group was less prejudiced

C. Test scores dropped for each group during their respective turn as the out-group

D. Children were unwilling to discriminate with respect to the others

C. Test scores dropped for each group during their respective turn as the out-group

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4. Which of the following would be the most effective way to decrease prejudice?

A. Create an environment of equal status, where groups must rely upon each other to solve a common problem

B. Bring groups together to talk about their feelings

C. Bring groups together and allow them to work next to each other

D. Bring groups together for a friendly competition

A. Create an environment of equal status, where groups must rely upon each other to solve a common problem

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1. The more you see someone, the more likely you are to like that person. Such a phenomenon is often due to

A. Reciprocity of liking

B. Similarity

C. Mere exposure

D. Proximity

C. Mere exposure

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2. What does the research say about the concept of opposites attract?

A. While it goes against the concept of similarity, it is real and research can prove it

B. Opposites attract is really more an example of proximity although studies show that opposites can and often are attracted to one another

C. Research notes that opposites attract but is unable to explain why this happens

D. Studies do not support this idea but instead offer the explanation of complementary qualities

D. Studies do not support this idea but instead offer the explanation of complementary qualities

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3. In grade school, 12-year-old Chase does not know 12-year-old Corrine well, but starts to like her when he hears from her friends that she has a crush on him. This is an example of

A. Reciprocity of liking

B. Similarity

C. Mere exposure

D. Proximity

A. Reciprocity of liking

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4. According to Robert Sternberg’s three components of love, which component addresses the physical aspects?

A. Intimacy

B. Passion

C. Commitment

D. Concern

B. Passion

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5. According to Sternberg, when all three components of love are present, a couple possesses __________ love.

A. Romantic

B. Passionate

C. Companionate

D. Consummate

D. Consummate

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1. When people are unable to reach a goal, frustration may result, which can ultimately turn into

A. Aggression

B. Pain

C. Confusion

D. Depression

A. Aggression

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2. Increased levels of aggression in those who drink alcohol may be due to a decrease in what neurostransmitter?

A. Dopamine

B. GABA

C. Endorphins

D. Serotonin

D. Serotonin

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3. Studies of the brain have found that the _____ is influential in the presence of _____ behavior

A. Occipital lobe; aggressive

B. Medulla; shy

C. Suprachiasmatic nucleus; passive

D. Temporoparietal junction; altruistic

D. Temporoparietal junction; altruistic

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4. Which of the following scenarios probably will not result in the bystander effect?

A. You come across someone lying on a busy sidewalk in a large city

B. You see someone pass out at a concert

C. You drive past an automobile accident where a crowd has gathered

D. You come across someone lying on a walking path while you are walking alone at your local nature center

D. You come across someone lying on a walking path while you are walking alone at your local nature center

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5. Once a situation has been defined as an emergency, the next step in the decision-making process is

A. Noticing

B. Taking action

C. Taking responsibility

D. Planning a course of action

C. Taking responsibility

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1. Saul admits that he conforms so as to be liked by others. This is known as

A. Compliance

B. Obedience

C. Informational social influence

D. Normative social influence

D. Normative social influence

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2. According to the text, in which of the following has groupthink been known to occur?

A. Presidential elections

B. The fall of communism

C. Mass suicides by cults

D. The sinking of the Titanic

D. The sinking of the Titanic

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3. Many businesses now require their employees to work in teams, believing that a group of four to five employees will accomplish more than four to five individuals working alone. This is an example of what concept?

A. Social facilitation

B. Social impairment

C. Social loafing

D. Social laziness

A. Social facilitation

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4. Maria was approached by her neighbor asking her to adopt two to three kittens that were abandoned by their mother. While Maria refused to take in three kittens, she did agree to adopt just one. What compliance technique did her neighbor use on Maria?

A. Foot-in-the-door

B. Door-in-the-face

C. Lowball

D. Double foot-in-the-door

B. Door-in-the-face

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5. Which of the following people would probably not be a prime candidate for membership into a cult?

A. Lewis, who is mad at the world, especially his parents

B. Leticia, who is open to new ideas and wants world peace and harmony among people

C. Lauren, who is under a lot of stress and dissatisfied with her life

D. Lawrence, who has only has a high school diploma but tends to be independent and happy with his life

D. Lawrence, who has only has a high school diploma but tends to be independent and happy with his life

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6. Follow-up studies to Stanley Milgram’s research have suggested that a teacher’s willingness to deliver potentially lethal shocks may be more a product of _____ than of obedience.

A. Conformity

B. Compliance

C. Social identity

D. Deindividuation

C. Social identity

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7. The public service messages that encourage parents to sit down with their children and talk frankly about drugs are promoting which method of attitude formation?

A. Direct contact

B. Direct instruction

C. Vicarious conditioning

D. Observational learning

B. Direct instruction

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8. Researchers have found that a __________ degree of fear in a message makes it more effective, particularly when it is combined with __________.

A. Maximum; information about how to prevent the fearful consequences

B. Minimum; threats

C. Moderate; threats

D. Moderate; information about how to prevent the fearful consequences

D. Moderate; information about how to prevent the fearful consequences

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9. Sandy was a juror in the trial for a man accused of stealing guns from a sporting goods store. The defendant was not very well spoken and came from a very poor background, but Sandy listened carefully to the evidence presented and made her decision based on that. Sandy was using _____ processing.

A. Central-route

B. Peripheral-route

C. Cognitive-route

D. Visual-route

A. Central-route

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10. If LaShonda was experiencing a sense of cognitive dissonance between her attitude and behavior, which of the following would help her reduce that uncomfortable sensation?

A. Thinking constantly about the mismatch

B. Maintaining her existing attitude

C. Discussing the inconsistency with others

D. Changing her behavior

D. Changing her behavior

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11. Gerard goes to a job interview dressed in patched blue jeans, a torn T-shirt, and sandals. His hair is uncombed and he hasn’t shaved in a few days. Obviously, Gerard knows nothing about

A. Cognitive dissonance

B. Attitude formation

C. Impression formation

D. Groupthink

C. Impression formation

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12. If behavior is assumed to be caused by external characteristics, this is known as

A. A situational cause

B. A dispositional cause

C. A fundamental attribution error

D. Actor-observer bias

A. A situational cause

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13. Thomas likes to “hang with the guys.” These people with whom Thomas identifies most strongly with are called a(n)

A. Referent group

B. In-group

C. Out-group

D. “Them” group

B. In-group

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14. The “Robber’s Cave” experiment showed the value of _____ in combating prejudice

A. “Jigsaw classrooms”

B. Equal status contact

C. Subordinate goals

D. Stereotyping vulnerability

B. Equal status contact

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15. Vivian and Steve met at work/ At first they were just friends, but over time, they found themselves falling in love—or as Vivian tells her friends, “Steve just grew on me!” According to research in interpersonal attraction, the most likely explanation for their attraction is

A. Mere exposure

B. Personal attractiveness

C. Fate

D. Reciprocity of liking

A. Mere exposure

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16. According to Sternberg, a couple whose love is based off of intimacy and passion but who are not yes committed to a long-term relationship are in the form of love called _____ love

A. Companionate

B. Romantic

C. Affectionate

D. Consummate

B. Romantic

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17. The concept that aggression results from a social role is based on what psychological theory?

A. Humanistic

B. Learning

C. Psychoanalytical

D. Cognitive

B. Learning

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18. To which two processes do most social psychologists attribute the failure of those around LaShanda Calloway to help her?

A. Bystander effect and altruism

B. Aggression and diffusion of responsibility

C. Altruism and diffusion of responsibility

D. Bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility

D. Bystander effect and diffusion of responsibility

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19. Cara knows that she can help people simply by dialing 9-1-1 on her cell phone if an emergency arises. Which step in the decision process for helping would Cara be at?

A. Noticing

B. Taking action

C. Taking responsibility

D. Planning a course of action

D. Planning a course of action

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20. Which of the following would the field of social neuroscience be most likely to study?

A. What parts of the brain influence social behavior

B. How influential heredity is on social behavior

C. What impact head trauma has on developing relationships

D. What impact friends have in resolving conflicts

A. What parts of the brain influence social behavior

Chapter 12: Test Yourself, Pages 498 - 499