PSYCH Chapter 13: Theories of Personality Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PSYCH Chapter 13: Theories of Personality Deck (41):
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1. If you are asked to describe your best friends by explaining how they act, typically feel, and what they think about, you would be describing their?

a. Temperament

b. Character

c. Personality

d. Mood

c. Personality

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2. According to Freud, the __________ mind was the most important determining factor in human behavior and personality.

a. Preconscious

b. Conscious

c. Conscience

d. Unconscious

d. Unconscious

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3. According to Freud, which part of the personality is totally buried within each individual?

a. Ego

b. Superego

c. Id

d. Conscience

c. Id

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4. The awakening of sexual curiosity and interest in the genitals is the beginning of what Freud termed the?

a. Oral stage

b. Anal stage

c. Phallic stage

d. Latency stage

c. Phallic stage

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5. Many of Kyle’s friends like to dress up on Halloween as devils, vampires, and zombies. According to Carl Jung’s theory, what archetype is being expressed?

a. Anima

b. Animus

c. Persona

d. Shadow

d. Shadow

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6. Which Neo-Freudian believed personality was mostly a product of dealing with anxieties during childhood?

a. Karen Horney

b. Erik Erikson

c. Carl Jung

d. Alfred Adler

a. Karen Horney

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1. According to the behavioral theory, personality primarily consists of?

a. Unconscious forces

b. Learned responses

c. Biologically driven traits

d. Personal choices

b. Learned responses

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2. Albert Bandura considers __________ as a person’s expectancy of how effective his or her efforts to accomplish a goal will be in any particular circumstance.

a. Self-image

b. Self-esteem

c. Self-awareness

d. Self-efficacy

d. Self-efficacy

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3. You have walked in late to class and your psychology professor is explaining how one personality theorist sees personality as a relatively stable set of potential responses to various situations. You know immediately that your professor is talking about the theories of?

a. Julian Rotter

b. B. F. Skinner

c. Albert Bandura

d. John Watson

a. Julian Rotter

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4. Nina appreciates compliments about her new photography business but really values constructive criticism, as she can then address particular issues. According to Julian Rotter, Nina has a(n)?

a. Strong self-concept

b. Real self

c. Internal locus of control

d. External locus of control

c. Internal locus of control

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5. What did Carl Rogers mean by the term “fully functioning person”?

a. Someone who is working to discover his or her real self

b. Someone who is working to discover his or her ideal self

c. Someone who is experiencing a match between his or her real and ideal self, and who is also trusting of their innermost institutions and urges

d. Someone who has discovered his or her self-efficacy

c. Someone who is experiencing a match between his or her real and ideal self, and who is also trusting of their innermost institutions and urges

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1. Trait theories are less concerned with __________ and more concerned with __________.

a. Changing personality; predicting personality

b. Describing personality; explaining personality development

c. Predicting personality; changing personality

d. Predicting behavior; changing personality

a. Changing personality; predicting personality

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2. A colleague at work is asked to describe you to the new manager. Most likely, the traits they will use in their description are examples of?

a. Common traits

b. Cardinal traits

c. Source traits

d. Surface traits

d. Surface traits

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3. Cattell’s research and use of factor analysis essentially scaled down many, many ways of describing aspects of personality into __________ source traits.

a. 10

b. 16

c. 5

d. 2

b. 16

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4. In the Big Five theory of personality, “E” stands for?

a. Empathy

b. Energy

c. External

d. Extraversion

d. Extraversion

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1. What is a major shortcoming in the field of behavioral genetics in terms of their studies on human personality traits?

a. Behavioral genetics are unable conduct controlled research studies on human subjects

b. Behavioral genetics are unable to scientifically validate anything

c. Behavioral genetics are unable to conduct studies on animals, only on humans

d. Behavioral genetics conduct their studies by looking at single individuals over a long period of time, thus slowing the rate by which they gather data

a. Behavioral genetics are unable conduct controlled research studies on human subjects

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2. What, if anything, have adoption studies taught us regarding the relationship between heredity and personality?

a. Adoption studies are a new area of study and have yet to offer any information on the effects of heredity on personality

b. Adoption studies have confirmed that personality can be strongly influenced by genetics

c. Adoption studies have not supported many behavioral genetics studies, thus questioning the idea that personality can be influenced by genetics

d. Adoption studies have resulted in conflicting findings, with some strongly supporting the influence of heredity on personality while others suggest that heredity has no influence whatsoever

b. Adoption studies have confirmed that personality can be strongly influenced by genetics

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3. Which of the following is an example of a halo effect?

a. Terrance unknowingly tends to rate his new classmate’s behavior slightly higher during testing after noticing the client is wearing a class ring from his own alma mater

b. James tends to distrust all instructors, regardless if they are new or if he has had them for multiple classes

c. Madeline always seems to like the last person she interviews for a job because she remembers the most about them

d. Aileen provided her diagnosis only after conducting her own assessment and compiling information from two of her professional colleagues

a. Terrance unknowingly tends to rate his new classmate’s behavior slightly higher during testing after noticing the client is wearing a class ring from his own alma mater

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4. Frequency counts and rating scales are especially helpful in assessing?

a. Internal thought process

b. Observable behaviors

c. Self-efficacy

d. Personal values

b. Observable behaviors

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5. Which of the following personality assessments might be best suited for objectivity identifying patterns of behavior or thinking?

a. Personal interview

b. MBTI

c. MMPI-2

d. TAT

c. MMPI-2

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6. What is the function of a validity scale?

a. To determine if a person is giving an accurate response

b. To determine how a subject really feels

c. To help better explain the results of a personality test

d. To offer both a diagnosis of abnormal behavior plus a positive therapeutic treatment

a. To determine if a person is giving an accurate response

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1. If you are describing characteristics of your child such as irritability or adaptability, psychologists would say you are not describing their personality but rather their?

a. Character

b. Consciousness

c. Mood

d. Temperament

d. Temperament

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2. According to Freud, the __________ works off the pleasure principle while the __________ is often perceived as the executive director of your personality.

a. Id; ego

b. Ego; superego

c. Superego; id

d. Superego; ego

a. Id; ego

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3. You are shocked to hear that two of your coworkers who seemingly hated one another are now getting married. According to Freud, what defense mechanism best explains their prior behavior?

a. Projection

b. Reaction Formation

c. Repression

d. Regression

b. Reaction Formation

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4. Four-year-old Brandon has watched his father as he has mowed the lawn. This year, Brandon asked for a lawn mower of his own for his birthday. Freud would say that Brandon is beginning to process of __________ as a way of resolving his Oedipal conflict.

a. Compensation

b. Identification

c. Sublimation

d. Denial

b. Identification

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5. Your professor explains how all females have an inner masculine side that adds to their personality. This concept is known as a(n)?

a. Anima

b. Animus

c. Shadow

d. Source trait

b. Animus

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6. According to Adler, firstborn children with younger siblings tend to be?

a. Overachieving

b. Competitive

c. Pampered

d. Filled with feelings of inferiority

a. Overachieving

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7. Karen Horney’s study of one’s personality focused on?

a. Anxiety during childhood

b. Biological changes during adolescence

c. Trait-based characteristics that were present in infancy

d. Environmental influences through adulthood

a. Anxiety during childhood

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8. Candice believes that fate will help her find the right man with whom to live her life. According to Rotter, she has a(n)?

a. External locus of control

b. Internal locus of control

c. Strong self-efficacy

d. Perceived sense of control

a. External locus of control

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9. Keisha works hard at her job because she believes it will increase her chances for a promotion. According to Julian Rotter’s theory, her effort is an example of what he calls?

a. Reinforcement value

b. Expectancy

c. Archetypes

d. Latency stage

b. Expectancy

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10. What is a primary advantage of the social cognitive view of personality over the psychodynamic view?

a. The social cognitive view tries to explain how people become the people they are

b. The social cognitive view stresses the importance of early childhood in personality development

c. The social cognitive view is fully able to explain all the complexities of human behavior

d. The social cognitive view has concepts that can be tested scientifically

d. The social cognitive view has concepts that can be tested scientifically

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11. Which perspective of psychology focuses on the role of each person’s conscious life experiences and choices in personality development?

a. Trait

b. Behavior

c. Humanistic

d. Psychodynamic

c. Humanistic

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12. An old motto of the U.S. Army was, “Be all you can be.” This concept fits well with Carl Rogers’s theory of?

a. Unconditional positive regard

b. Empathy

c. Self-actualizing tendency

d. Real versus the ideal self

c. Self-actualizing tendency

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13. According to Rogers, a mismatch between real and ideal self…

a. Typically motivates individuals to close the gap

b. Can result in anxiety and neurotic behavior

c. Causes one to better understand their unconscious motives

d. Causes an increase in unconditional positive regard

b. Can result in anxiety and neurotic behavior

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14. Dr. Hill is constantly late for meetings. She often arrives to her classes 5-10 minutes late and leaves students waiting at her door during office hours for up to 30 minutes. Using the five-factor model, which dimension would show a very low score for Dr. Hill?

a. Self-sufficiency

b. Openness

c. Agreeableness

d. Conscientiousness

d. Conscientiousness

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15. To explain an individual’s personality, trait theories would look to?

a. Early childhood emotional traumas

b. The kind of love, warmth, and affection given to the person by his or her parents

c. The early experiences of rewards and punishments for certain behavior

d. The constellation of personality characteristics possessed by the person

d. The constellation of personality characteristics possessed by the person

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16. Studies of the hereditability of personality traits have found?

a. Little evidence to support the belief that personality can be passed by genetics

b. Evidence to support the belief that personality can be passed by genetics but only in highly developed countries

c. Strong evidence to support some personality traits can be passed by genetics

d. Strong evidence that personality is passed exclusively by genetics

c. Strong evidence to support some personality traits can be passed by genetics

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17. As examples of what might be required as parts of specific projective tests, the __________ asks clients to look at a picture and tell a story while the __________ asks clients to report everything they see in an ambiguous figure.

a. Rorschach; Thematic Apperception Test

b. MMPI; Thematic Apperception Test

c. MMPI; NEO-PI-R

d. Thematic Apperception Test: Rorschach

d. Thematic Apperception Test: Rorschach

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18. Which type of assessment would be the most reliable?

a. Subjective test

b. Projective test

c. Personality inventory

d. Observational study

c. Personality inventory

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19. The __________ is based on the five-factor model while __________ is based on the work of Raymond Cattell.

a. NEO-PI-R; 16PF

b. MBTI; NEO-PI-R

c. MMPI; MBTI

d. 16PF; MMPI-2

a. NEO-PI-R; 16PF

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20. Personality neuroscience is an emerging field offering evidence of a possible relationship between various aspects of personality

a. Brain structure and function

b. The structure and function of individual neurons

c. Skull shape and size

d. neuroticism

a. Brain structure and function

Chapter 13: Test Yourself, Pages 534 - 535