Psych: Psychoactive & Illegal drugs, Intox/Wdl Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Psych: Psychoactive & Illegal drugs, Intox/Wdl Deck (31):
1

Depressants

General sx of Intoxication?

Sx of Withdrawal?

Alcohol, Opioids, Barbituates, Benzos

Intox: Mood elevation, decr anxiety, sedation, behavioral disinhibition, respiratory depression

Wdl: anxiety, tremors, seizures, insomnia

2

Alcohol: sx of intox?

Labs?

-ataxia, slurred speech, coma, blackouts

-serum gamma-glutamyltransferase is sensitive indicator of alcohol use.

Lab AST value is twice ALT value

3

Alcohol: sx of wdl?

Treatment if severe?

Mild: similar sx as other depressants

Severe: autonomic hyperactivity, DTs (5-15% mortality)

Tx = benzodiazepines (ex chlordiazepoxide)

4

Delirium Tremens?

Tx?

"Glutamate storm"

Life-threatening alcohol wdl. Peaks 2-5 days after last drink.

Symptoms (in chrono order):

1. Autonomic hyperactivity (tachycardia, tremors, anxiety, seizures)

2. Psychotic sx (hallucinations, delusions)

3. Confusion

Tx = Benzos

5

Alcohol: what receptors are involved?

GABA-A agonist

Glutamate/NMDA blocker

incr ß endorphins

6

Opioids

sx of toxication?

Tx?

(morphine, heroin, methadone)

Euphoria, pinpoint pupils

Resp/CNS depression - coma

seizures if OD

Tx: Naloxone (acute), Naltrexone (rehab)

7

Opioids

Sx of withdrawal?

Tx?

cold turkey: sweating, dilated pupils, piloerection 

flu-like: fever, rhinorrhea, yawning, nausea, cramps, diarrhea

Tx: methadone, buprenorphine

8

Barbituates: sx of tox?

Tx?

Resp depression

low safety margin

Tx: manage symptoms, assist with respiration, BP support)

9

Barbituates: sx of wdl?

Delirium

CV collapse (life-threatening)

10

Benzodiazepines: sx of tox?

(ex diazepam, lorazepam)

ataxia, slight resp depression

Tx: support, flumazenil (competitive benzo antagonist)

11

Benzodiazepines: sx of wdl?

sleep issues, depression, rebound anxiety, seizure

(can be triggered by flumazenil in attempt to reverse intoxication)

12

alcohol: what is it the causes the hangover sx?

buildup of acetaldehyde

ADH = enzyme that converts this to acetate --> acetyl CoA --> TCA

13

what blocks ADH/what is the effect?

Disulfuram blocks ADH leading to a buildup of acetaldehyde if someone drinks alcohol.

Leads to really bad hangover sx. "antabuse"

14

Besides disulfuride, what drug can block acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH) and cause hangover-like sx?

metronidazole

used to treat Trichomonas, giardia, and bacterial vaginosis

15

Stimulants: general signs of intoxication?

mood elevation, psychomotor agitation, insomnia, arrhythmias, tachycardia, anxiety

16

Stimulants: general signs of withdrawal?

post-use crash:

depression, lethargy, weight gain, headache

17

s/s of what?

euphoria, grandiosity, pupillary dilation, prolonged wakefulness, HTN, tachycardia, anorexia, paranoia, fever

(severe: cardia arrest, seizure)

amphetamine use

18

s/s of what?

anhedonia, incr apetite, hypersomnolence, existential crisis

amphetamine withdrawal

19

s/s of what?

impaired judgement, pupillary dilatation, hallucinations, paranoia, angina, sudden cardiac death

cocaine use

20

hypersomnolence, malaise, severe craving, depression/suicidality

cocaine wdl

21

restlessness, incr diuresis, muscle twitching

caffeine use

22

no concentration, headache

caffeine wdl

23

restlessness

nicotine use

24

irritability, anxiety, craving

nicotine wdl

25

tx for cocaine use/od

benzodiazepines

26

tx for nicotine wdl

nicotine patch, gum, lozenges

bupropion/varenicline

27

violent behavior, impulsiveness, fever, nystagmus, delirium (+ more)

PCP (phencyclidine) use

28

depression, anxiety, irritability, restlessness, anergia, disturbances of thought and sleep

PCP wdl

29

perceptual distortion, depersonalization, anxiety, paranoia, psychosis, flashbacks

LSD use

(lysergic acid diethylamide)

30

euphoria, anziety, paranoid delusions, perception of slowed time, incr appetite, social withdrawal, conjunctival injection

marijuana (cannabinoid) use

31

irritability, depression, insomnia, nausea, anorexia

marijuana (cannabinoid) wdl