Psychiatry - Pathology (Part 1) Flashcards Preview

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What are the seven effects of long-term affection deprivation on infants?

Decreased muscle tone, poor language skills, poor socialization skills, lack of basic trust, anaclitic depression, weight loss, and physical illness


True or False? Severe long-term affection deprivation can result in infant death.



What are the "four W's" that result from long-term affection deprivation of infants?

Weakness, Wordlessness, Wanting (social), and Wariness


In cases of physical abuse in children, is the abuser most frequently female or male?



True or False? In cases of physical abuse in children, the abuser is usually the primary caregiver.



In cases of sexual abuse in children, is the abuser more frequently male or female?



True or False? In cases of sexual abuse in children, the abuser is usually a stranger to the victim.

False; the abuser is usually known to the victim


Approximately how many deaths per year result from the physical abuse of children in the United States?

Approximately 3000


The peak incidence of sexual abuse in children occurs in what age range?

9 to 12 years


A diagnosis of a sexually transmitted disease in a young child may be evidence of what?

Child abuse


A young girl with a history of urinary tract infections presents with multiple bruises and decreased vision in the right eye; ophthalmic evaluation revealed retinal detachment; imaging studies revealed healed fractures and subdural hematoma; these findings may be evidence of which condition?

Child abuse


Name the most common form of child maltreatment.

Child neglect


True or False? Child abuse must be reported to local child protective services but child neglect does not.

False; both must be reported to local child protective services


Child neglect is characterized by failure to provide what support for the child?

Adequate food, shelter, supervision, education, affection


What signs and symptoms can be indicative of child neglect?

Withdrawal, malnutrition, poor hygiene, failure to thrive


What is anaclitic depression?

Depression in an infant as a result of continued separation from the caregiver


What is a major consequence of anaclitic depression in infants?

Failure to thrive or other developmental disturbances


What is the response of an infant with anaclitic depression to human contact?

Infants can become withdrawn and unresponsive to people when suffering from anaclitic depression


Name four stressors that can lead to regression in children.

Physical illness, punishment, birth of a new sibling, or fatigue


Bedwetting in a previously toilet-trained child during hospitalization is an example of what type of behavior?

Regression as a result of a stressor


What psychiatric disorder is characterized by poor impulse control and an inability to pay attention?

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder


What is the average intelligent quotient of a child with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?

Patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have a normal intelligence quotient


Which drugs are used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?

Methylphenidate (Ritalin), amphetamines, atomoxetine


Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is characterized by what three traits?

Hyperactivity, motor impairment, emotional lability


What brain region has been found to be smaller in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?

Frontal lobe


True or False? Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is exclusively a disorder of childhood.

False, as many as 50% of children will carry the disorder into adulthood


A mother brings her nine-year-old son in for evaluation for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder because his teacher has noticed distractibility, restlessness, and inattention at school, which has never been present before now. Does her child have attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder?

No, the onset of symptoms must begin before 7 years of age


An 14-year-old boy is brought to the clinic after he set the neighbor's cat on fire; this patient has many arrests and school expulsions in his background; what is the most likely diagnosis?

Conduct disorder


After reaching the age of 18 years, patients with conduct disorder are commonly rediagnosed with what psychiatric diagnosis?

Antisocial personality disorder


A boy has been defying authority; he commonly makes rude remarks to his parents, teachers, and other adults; he has no history of violence toward people or animals; what is the most likely diagnosis?

Oppositional defiant disorder