Psychiatry - Psychology Flashcards Preview

USMLE (S1) Psychiatry > Psychiatry - Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychiatry - Psychology Deck (79)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Name three scales used to measure intelligence quotient.

A

Stanford-Binet, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children

2
Q

What is the Stanford-Binet calculation of the intelligence quotient?

A

(Mental age / chronologic age) 100

3
Q

What is the mean intelligence quotient score? What is the standard deviation?

A

100; 15

4
Q

The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children is used for children in what age range?

A

6 to 16 years of age

5
Q

If an intelligence quotient score is 70, how many standard deviations is that below the mean?

A

Two

6
Q

A diagnosis of mental retardation, severe mental retardation, and profound retardation requires that the intelligence quotient be below what number, respectively?

A

70; 40; 20

7
Q

A mouse is delivered a loud noise and subsequently exhibits a startle response. After 40 trials, the startle response slowly extinguishes. This is an example of what type of learning?

A

Habituation

8
Q

A mouse is delivered a loud noise and subsequently exhibits a startle response. After 40 trials, the startle response becomes more pronounced. This is an example of what type of learning?

A

Sensitization

9
Q

What is classical conditioning?

A

A learning method in which a neutral stimulus eventually evokes a specific response. The learned stimulus evokes a specific response. The learned stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus that would normally not evoke the specific response. By pairing the two stimuli, the specific response can be evoked by the neutral stimulus

10
Q

In classical conditioning, the learned stimulus is also called the _____ stimulus.

A

Conditioned

11
Q

Who originally performed experiments on classical conditioning with dogs?

A

Pavlov

12
Q

In Pavlovs classical conditioning experiments with dogs, ringing a bell provoked salivation. What is the learned, or conditioned, response?

A

Salivation

13
Q

In Pavlovs classical conditioning experiments with dogs, ringing a bell provoked salivation; what is the learned, or conditioned, stimulus?

A

The bell

14
Q

In Pavlovs classical conditioning experiments with dogs, ringing a bell provoked salivation; what was the original unconditioned stimulus?

A

Food

15
Q

What is operant conditioning?

A

A learning method is which actions are adopted into one's repertoire because of receipt of reward upon completing the action

16
Q

A mouse that presses a button to get rewarded with food is learning by what type of reinforcement?

A

Positive reinforcement

17
Q

A mouse that presses a button to avoid shock is learning by what type of reinforcement?

A

Negative reinforcement (this should not be confused with punishment)

18
Q

How do punishment and negative reinforcement differ in operant conditioning?

A

Unlike in punishment, negative reinforcement involves the removal of an aversive stimulus to elicit behavior

19
Q

In operant conditioning, the application of an aversive stimulus to extinguish unwanted behavior is also known as what?

A

Punishment

20
Q

A mouse presses a button to receive food. After 40 trials, the food is removed so that no food is received when the mouse presses the button. After 20 subsequent trials, the mouse no longer presses the button. What is this pattern called?

A

Extinction, in which removal of positive reinforcement leads to cessation of behavior

21
Q

In reinforcement, what variable determines how quickly a behavior is learned or extinguished?

A

The pattern of reinforcement: continuous or variable ratio

22
Q

With a continuous reinforcement schedule for learning, how often is a reward received?

A

A reward is received after every correct response/behavior

23
Q

With a continuous reinforcement schedule for learning, how quickly is the learned behavior extinguished?

A

Rapidly

24
Q

With a variable ratio reinforcement schedule for learning, how often is a reward received?

A

A reward is received after a random number of responses

25
Q

With a variable ratio reinforcement schedule for learning, how quickly is the learned behavior extinguished?

A

Slowly

26
Q

What is the definition of transference?

A

A patient projects feelings about another person onto a doctor

27
Q

What is the definition of countertransference?

A

A physician projects feelings about another person onto a patient

28
Q

A patient is hostile toward her new female psychiatrist. She requests transfer of care to a male psychiatrist. Her history reveals a tumultuous past with her mother that eventually led her to run away at a young age. What term describes this type of interaction?

A

Transference

29
Q

A psychiatrist begins treating a patient with a history of alcoholism. The psychiatrist slowly becomes hostile towards the patient. The psychiatrist recently divorced her husband who was alcohol-dependent. What term describes this type of interaction?

A

Countertransference

30
Q

What are Freuds three structures of the mind?

A

Id, ego, superego

31
Q

What role does the id play?

A

It is responsible for drives, primal urges, sexual behavior, aggression, desire for food

32
Q

According to Freud, what structure of the mind is responsible for feelings like, &I want it&?

A

The id

33
Q

Is the id a feature of the conscious or subsconscious?

A

It is entirely subconscious

34
Q

What role does the superego play?

A

It is responsible for moral values and the conscience

35
Q

According to Freud, what structure of the mind is responsible for feelings like, &I know I cant have it&?

A

The superego

36
Q

According to Freud, what structure of the mind can lead to self-blame and attacks on the ego?

A

The superego

37
Q

What is the role of the ego?

A

It acts as mediator between the id and accepted reality

38
Q

Who first described the Oedipus complex?

A

Freud

39
Q

What is the Oedipus complex, as described by Freud?

A

A condition in which a child has repressed sexual feelings for the opposite-sex parent

40
Q

A young boy at the dinner table copies his parents when they put their napkins on their laps. A few nights later he puts his napkin on his lap before his parents. Acquisition of this behavior is best explained by what theory of social learning?

A

Modeling

41
Q

Behavior achieved by following the reward of closer and closer approximations to a desired behavior is also known as what?

A

Shaping

42
Q

How many stages are there in normal development, according to Erikson?

A

Eight

43
Q

According to Erikson, what stage of development occurs at 0 to 18 months, and what crisis is involved?

A

The oral sensory stage where trust and mistrust are in crisis

44
Q

According to Erikson, what stage of development is defined at 12-20 years and what crisis is involved?

A

The adolescent stage where identity and role confusion are in crisis

45
Q

Define the concept of an ego defense.

A

Unconscious mental processes used by the ego to resolve conflict and prevent feelings of anxiety and depression

46
Q

As an ego defense, what is altruism?

A

A manifestation in which guilty feelings are alleviated by unsolicited generosity towards others

47
Q

A mafia boss who makes a large donation to charity has unknowingly evoked what mature ego defense?

A

Altruism

48
Q

As an ego defense, how is humor employed?

A

It is used to diffuse the pressure of an anxiety-provoking situation by joking about it

49
Q

A nervous medical student who jokes about the boards is using what mature ego defense?

A

Humor

50
Q

As an ego defense, what is sublimation?

A

A mature ego defense in which a person replaces an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but that does not conflict with his/her values

51
Q

When one uses aggressive impulses to succeed in business ventures, what mature ego defense is being evoked?

A

Sublimation

52
Q

What mature ego defense is evoked when one voluntarily withholds an idea or feeling from conscious awareness?

A

Suppression

53
Q

A medical student who chooses not to think about the USMLE until the week of the exam is using what mature ego defense?

A

Suppression

54
Q

What are the four mature ego defenses?

A

Sublimation, Altruism, Suppression, and Humor; remember, "Mature women wear a SASH")

55
Q

Define acting out as an ego defense.

A

An immature ego defense in which unacceptable feelings are manifested as actions

56
Q

A temper tantrum is an example of what immature ego defense?

A

Acting out

57
Q

As an ego defense, what is dissociation?

A

An immature ego defense in which a person manifests a temporary but drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness, or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress

58
Q

Multiple personality disorder is an extreme form of what immature ego defense?

A

Dissociation

59
Q

Define denial as an ego defense.

A

It is an immature ego defense in which a person avoids awareness of a painful reality

60
Q

True or False? Denial is a common reaction among newly diagnosed patients with AIDS or cancer.

A

TRUE

61
Q

Define displacement as an ego defense.

A

An immature ego defense in which negative feelings are targeted at an object or person unrelated to the inciting event

62
Q

A mother who yells at her child because she is frustrated with her boss has used what immature ego defense?

A

Displacement

63
Q

Define fixation as an ego defense.

A

An immature ego defense in which a person exhibits arrested development. That is, they stop development prematurely, thereby resembling a child

64
Q

True or False? An 18-year-old patient presents with encopresis; he was previously continent. This is an example of fixation.

A

False; this is an example of regression since the patient had previously reached a developmental milestone and then reverted. Fixation is reaching a certain milestone and never progressing

65
Q

Define identification as an ego defense.

A

An immature ego defense characterized by emulating the behavior of an admired figure (even though the figure is not necessarily the best model)

66
Q

An abused wife who in turn abuses her children exhibits what behavior?

A

Identification

67
Q

Define the ego defense isolation.

A

This is an immature ego defense where memory of an unacceptable act is separated from the emotion associated with it

68
Q

An individual who is able to describe her history of sexual abuse by her father in great detail with no emotion exhibits what behavior?

A

Isolation

69
Q

Define projection as an ego defense.

A

An immature ego defense in which a person who is has unacceptable feelings or beliefs attributes those feelings or beliefs to someone else

70
Q

A man is mad at his wife, but instead of discussing his feelings, accuses his wife of being mad at him. What type of defense mechanism is this?

A

Projection

71
Q

Define rationalization as an ego defense.

A

An immature ego defense in which one uses logic and reason to justify an event or behavior

72
Q

A man who finds out that his wife had an affair says that he and his wife were &never in love to begin with& exhibits what defense?

A

Rationalization

73
Q

Define the ego defense reaction formation.

A

An immature ego defense whereby a negative idea or feeling is offset by adopting a behavior that is vastly different from the offending thought

74
Q

What immature ego defense is manifested by a person who desires sexual promiscuity but enters a convent instead?

A

Reaction formation

75
Q

Define the ego defense known as regression.

A

An immature ego defense in which a person who has reached all developmental milestones reverts to immature behaviors to cope with stressors

76
Q

A 15year old boy who got into a fight with his parents soothes himself through thumb-sucking. What type of defense mechanism is this?

A

Regression

77
Q

Define repression as an ego defense.

A

An immature ego defense in which true feelings about an event are isolated from conscious awareness

78
Q

Define the ego defense known as splitting.

A

An immature ego defense that manifests as the belief that people are either good or bad

79
Q

A patient who says that all hospital staff are terrible but all medical students are exceptional is manifesting what immature ego defense?

A

Splitting