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Flashcards in Psychological approaches to common mental health problems Deck (27)
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1

Common mental health disorders?

1 Affective/anxiety disorders

2 Substance misuse disorders

3 DISORDERS OF REACTION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS

2

Common mental health disorders - Affective/anxiety disorders?

1) Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

2) Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD)

3) Panic Disorder and Phobic Anxiety Disorders

4) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

3

Common mental health disorders - Substance misuse disorders?

1) Due to use of ALCOHOL

2) Due to use of TOBACCO

3) Due to use of OPIOIDS/BENZOS/STIMULANTS

4

Common mental health disorders - Disorders of reaction to psychological stress?

Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

5

What is cognitive behavioural therapy good for?

Particularly good for depression, anxiety, phobias, OCD, PTSD

6

Overview of Cognitive behavioural therapy?

> How our thoughts relate to our feelings and behaviour (Beck, 1979)

> Particularly good for depression, anxiety, phobias, OCD, PTSD

> Focus on here and now

> Short-term

> Problem focussed, goal oriented

> Individual, group, self-help book or computer programme

7

What is CBT?

> Identify thoughts, feelings and behaviours

> Assess whether thoughts are unrealistic / unhelpful (thinking errors)
- Automatic negative thoughts
- Unrealistic beliefs
- Cognitive distortions
- Catastrophizing
- Black and white / all or nothing thinking
- Perfectionism

> Identify what can change

> Client engages in “homework” which challenges the unrealistic or unhelpful thoughts (thinking errors)
- Graded exposure
- Response prevention

8

Avoidance in depression - social withdrawal?

> Not taking on challenging tasks

> Sitting around the house

> Spending excessive time in bed

9

Avoidance in depression - non-social avoidance?

> Not thinking about relationship problems

> Not making decisions about the future

> Not taking opportunities

> Not being serious about work / studies

10

Avoidance in depression - cognitive avoidance?

> Watching rubbish on television

> Playing computer games

> Gambling

> Comfort-eating

> Excessive exercise

11

Avoidance in depression - avoidance by distraction?

Use of alcohol and other substances

12

What is behavioural action?

Behavioural therapy is an action-based therapy that looks to foster positive behaviour change. It is effective within depression

13

Behavioural Activation
Theory and Rationale?

Focus on avoided activities:
- as a guide for activity scheduling
- for a functional analysis of cognitive processes that involve avoidance

Focus on what predicts and maintains an unhelpful response by various reinforcers

Client taught to analyse unintended consequences of their way of responding

14

What can interpersonal psychotherapy used for?

Depression
Anxiety

15

Interpersonal therapy - Strengths?

A grade evidence for treating depression

No formal homework – may be preferable

Client can continue to practise skills beyond the sessions ending

16

Interpersonal therapy - Limitations?

Requires degree of ability to reflect – may be difficult for some

Where poor social networks – limited interpersonal support

17

What is interpersonal therapy?

A central idea in IPT is that psychological symptoms, such as depressed mood, can be understood as a response to current difficulties in our everyday interactions with others. In turn, the depressed mood can also affect the quality of these interactions. When a person is able to interact more effectively with others, their psychological symptoms often improve.

IPT can typically focus on the following relationship areas:

> Conflict with another person
> Life changes that affect how you feel about yourself and others
> Grief and loss
> Difficulty in starting or keeping relationships going

18

What is interpersonal therapy?

A central idea in IPT is that psychological symptoms, such as depressed mood, can be understood as a response to current difficulties in our everyday interactions with others. In turn, the depressed mood can also affect the quality of these interactions. When a person is able to interact more effectively with others, their psychological symptoms often improve.

IPT can typically focus on the following relationship areas:

> Conflict with another person
> Life changes that affect how you feel about yourself and others
> Grief and loss
> Difficulty in starting or keeping relationships going

19

What is motivational interviewing (MI)?

MI uses a guiding style to engage clients, clarify their strengths and aspirations, evoke their own motivations for change and promote autonomy in decision making

20

Four general principles of motivational interviewing?

R - resist the urge to change the individual’s course of action through didactic means (avoid argument)

U - understand it’s the individual’s reasons for change, not those of the practitioner, that will elicit a change in behaviour (self-efficacy)

L - listening is important; the solutions lie within the individual, not the practitioner (express empathy)

E - empower the individual to understand that they have the ability to change their behaviour

21

Stages of Change?

1) Pre-contemplation
2) Contemplation
3) Planning
4) Action
5) Maintenance

22

Stages of Change - Pre-contemplation?

In denial

23

Stages of Change - Contemplation?

Ambivalence – 6 months to a lifetime! – information - risk screening - pros and cons

24

Stages of Change - Planning?

"I have a problem – how can I change" – options for change / build confidence and motivation

25

Stages of Change - Action?

‘this is what I am doing ‘– preventing relapse and coping strategies / strategies to maintain goals encouragement in failures

26

Stages of Change - Maintenance?

Coping strategies / weak points / emergencies/ slips back protocols

27

How many people suffer from a mental disorder at some point?

1 In 4