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Year 3 - Psychiatry > Quick revision > Flashcards

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1

Depression as a symptom?

an emotion within the range of normal experience

2

Depression as a syndrome?

a constellation of symptoms and signs

3

Depression as a recurrent illness?

"recurrent depressive disorder"

4

What are the three core symptoms of depression?

The three core symptoms are:
1) Low Mood

2) Anhedonia = A complete inability to feel pleasure

3) Low Energy

5

What are the other symptoms outside of the three core symptoms (Low Mood, Anhedonia, Low Energy) of depression?

> Poor appetite

> Poor sleep

> Poor concentration

> Reduced libido

> Tearfulness

> Negative thoughts

> Suicidal thoughts

..... this list is not exhaustive

6

What is psychosis?

a mental disorder characterized by symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations, that indicate impaired contact with reality

7

What are delusions?

Usually negative or guilty in nature

e.g. "My body is rotting", "I have committed a great crime and am being punished"

8

What are hallucinations?

Usually Auditory

Second Person (talking directly to the patient)
e.g. A voice telling them they are 'worthless', that they smell bad or criticising what they are wearing

Can also be:
> Visual (e.g. spiders)

> Tactile (e.g. feeling things crawling on their skin)

> Olfactory (e.g. smelling rotting flesh)

> Gustatory (e.g. bad taste in mouth

9

What medical history would you want to know about in depression?

> Thyroid disorders (hypothyroidism can mimic depression)

> Chronic illness/pain

10

What psychiatric history would you want to know about in depression?

Admissions, suicide attempts

11

What family history would you want to know about in depression?

Psychiatric disorders, suicide

12

What personal history would you want to know about in depression?

Adverse experiences which may have effected their ways of thinking

...and their current situation

13

Which medications would you want to know about in depression?

Prescribed drugs such as beta-blockers can cause depression

14

What social history would you want to know about in depression?

Current social or financial difficulties

Use of alcohol/drugs

15

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - appearance?

Poor self-care, Reduced range of facial expressions

16

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - speech?

Slow, Quiet, Monotonous

17

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - mood and affect?

Subjectively and Objectively depressed mood

Reduced range and intensity of affects

18

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - thought?

Form = Thoughts may be slowed

Content:
1) Negative, guilty or suicidal thoughts
2) Depressive delusions if psychotic

19

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - perceptions?

Possible auditory hallucinations if psychotic

Reduced Eye Contact

20

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - cognition?

Not usually impaired

21

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - insight?

Usually present

22

Within depression what features can be seen on the mental state examination - behaviour?

Psychomotor retardation or agitation

Reduced Eye Contact

23

Treatment options in depression?

1) Biological:
- Antidepressants
- Electro-convulsive therapy

2) Psychological:
- Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)
- Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)

3) Social:
- No specific treatments but modification of lifestyle factors may be helpful

24

Treatment options in depression - Biological?

Biological:
- Antidepressants
- Electro-convulsive therapy

25

Treatment options in depression - Psychological?

- Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

- Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT)

26

Treatment options in depression - Social?

No specific treatments but modification of lifestyle factors may be helpful

27

How long should antidepressants be used for in depression?

6-12 months in normal circumstances

Can be continued for long-term use in the case of chronic depression or in a prophylaxis nature

28

Complications of depression?

> Suicide

> Psychosis

> Social and Occupational dysfunction:
- Unemployment or problems at work
- Family and relationship problems
- Socially isolation

29

What is deliberate self harm?

Is self-mutilation or self-poisoning, which a person carries out in order to relieve (or attempt to relieve) distressing emotional states

30

What is self-mutilation?

Is usually by cutting

Can be burning with flame or caustic substances