What is the direct pathway between psychological factors and health?
Psychological factors directly affect physical health
What is the indirect pathway between psychological factors and physical health?
Psychological factors impact health behaviour which impacts physical health
What are the leading causes of disease?
1) Behaviour (50%)
2) Biology and environment (20%)
3) Access (10%)
What is behaviour?
The actions or reactions of an individual to a situation
What is health behaviour?
Behaviour that may have implications for health
What were the leading causes for death in the US in 2000?
1) Tobacco use
2) Poor diet and physical activity
3) Alcohol consumption
What can people engage in to prevent death?
Being physically active
Only drinking alcohol moderately
Eating 5 portions of fruit and veg a day
How much more likely are people to die if they do not do any of the following:
be physically active
drink alcohol moderately
eat 5 portions of fruit and veg a day
What are the different parts of the BMI?
What BMI is underweight?
What BMI is normal weight?
What BMI is overweight?
What BMI is obese?
Is obesity improving or not?
Becoming a worse problem
What are some behaviour risk factors for chronic disease?
Lack of physical activity
Excessive alcohol consumption
What diseases is smoking linked to?
Cardiovascular disease (such as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke)
What diseases is being overweight linked to?
Type 2 diabetes
What is a poor diet?
High saturated fat
Low fruit and veg
High red/processed meat
What diseases is a poor diet linked to?
Type 2 diabetes
What is considered to be a lack of physical activity?
<30 mins moderate intensity activity on 5+ days per week
<20 mins vigorous intensity activity on 3+ days per week
What is considered to be excessive alcohol consumption?
>14 units for women per week
>21 units for men per week
Binge drinking is 6 units for women or 8 for men on one occasion
What diseases is excessive alcohol consumption linked to?
What are some determinants of health behaviour?
What are background factors?
Characteristics that define the context in which people live their lives
What are stable factors?
Individual differences (personality) in psychological activity that are stable over time
What are the 3 ways that stable factors influence appraisal?
Determine if, and to what extent and even is salient, meaning the sensitivity towards particular types of events
Provide a generalised framework for understanding and evaluating the event, such as a threat or challenge
Make available or suggest potential responses such as initial response options
What are the 3 broad types of individual differences?
Emotional dispositions (psychological processes involved in both the experience and expression)
Generalised expectancies (psychological processes incolved in formulating expectations in relation to future outcomes)
Explanatory styles (psychological processes involved in explaining the causes of negative events)
What are emotional dispositions?
Psychological process involved in both the experience and expression
What does appraisal mean?
What are examples of emotional dispositions?
Negative affect (tendency toward the experience of negative affective states such as hostility, depression and anxiety)
Emotional expression (the low expression of negative emotional experience, but unconscious repression and conscious suppresion)