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Flashcards in Psychological Influences on Health Deck (58)
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1

What is the direct pathway between psychological factors and health?

Psychological factors directly affect physical health

2

What is the indirect pathway between psychological factors and physical health?

Psychological factors impact health behaviour which impacts physical health

3

What are the leading causes of disease?

1) Behaviour (50%)

2) Biology and environment (20%)

3) Access (10%)

4

What is behaviour?

The actions or reactions of an individual to a situation

5

What is health behaviour?

Behaviour that may have implications for health

6

What were the leading causes for death in the US in 2000?

1) Tobacco use

2) Poor diet and physical activity

3) Alcohol consumption

7

What can people engage in to prevent death?

Not smoking

Being physically active

Only drinking alcohol moderately

Eating 5 portions of fruit and veg a day

8

How much more likely are people to die if they do not do any of the following:

not smoke

be physically active

drink alcohol moderately

eat 5 portions of fruit and veg a day

4x

9

What are the different parts of the BMI?

Underweight

Normal weight

Overweight

Obese

10

What BMI is underweight?

<18.5

11

What BMI is normal weight?

18.5-24.9

12

What BMI is overweight?

25-29.9

13

What BMI is obese?

>30

14

Is obesity improving or not?

Becoming a worse problem

15

What are some behaviour risk factors for chronic disease?

Smoking

Overweight

Poor diet

Lack of physical activity

Excessive alcohol consumption

16

What diseases is smoking linked to?

Cardiovascular disease (such as high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, stroke)

COPD

Some cancers

17

What diseases is being overweight linked to?

Cardiovascular disease

Type 2 diabetes

Some cancers

18

What is a poor diet?

High saturated fat

Low fibre

Low fruit and veg

High salt

High red/processed meat

Low fish

19

What diseases is a poor diet linked to?

Obesity

Type 2 diabetes

Cardiovascular disease

Some cancers

20

What is considered to be a lack of physical activity?

<30 mins moderate intensity activity on 5+ days per week

or

<20 mins vigorous intensity activity on 3+ days per week

21

What is considered to be excessive alcohol consumption?

>14 units for women per week

>21 units for men per week

Binge drinking is 6 units for women or 8 for men on one occasion

22

What diseases is excessive alcohol consumption linked to?

Obesity

Liver disease

Cardiovascular disease

Some cancers

Diabetes

Oesteoporosis

Pancreitis

Psychiatric disorders

23

What are some determinants of health behaviour?

Background factors

Stable factors

Social factors

Situational factors

24

What are background factors?

Characteristics that define the context in which people live their lives

25

What are stable factors?

Individual differences (personality) in psychological activity that are stable over time

26

What are the 3 ways that stable factors influence appraisal?

Determine if, and to what extent and even is salient, meaning the sensitivity towards particular types of events

Provide a generalised framework for understanding and evaluating the event, such as a threat or challenge

Make available or suggest potential responses such as initial response options

27

What are the 3 broad types of individual differences?

Emotional dispositions (psychological processes involved in both the experience and expression)

Generalised expectancies (psychological processes incolved in formulating expectations in relation to future outcomes)

Explanatory styles (psychological processes involved in explaining the causes of negative events)

28

What are emotional dispositions?

Psychological process involved in both the experience and expression

29

What does appraisal mean?

Understanding

30

What are examples of emotional dispositions?

Negative affect (tendency toward the experience of negative affective states such as hostility, depression and anxiety)

Emotional expression (the low expression of negative emotional experience, but unconscious repression and conscious suppresion)